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Book ID 327

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Extract Date: 1930's

In 1930 �

In 1930 �

some german farmers got permission to root out the bush on the southern slopes of Mt. Oldeani and Ngorongoro-Crater wich were not inhabitat in those days. One of the newly established farms was later named "Shangri-La", after the famous novel "Lost Horizon" of James Hilton. Being an english possession for a relatively short period after World War 2, not only Shangri-La, but also some other plantations were rebought by a Danish-German group, who invested a substantial amount to revitalize the old neglected farms.

Nowadays [2006~]

this investor group is represented by its owners Christian Jebsen and Dr. G�nter Klatt. The familiy Jebsen has a long link of over 100 years with Tanzania and Dr. Klatt made some historical studies about the country. With their Karatu-Developement-Foundation company ( KDF), they are eager to promote the three sections of the farm: coffee, vegetables and dairy. These products are supplied to hotels and lodges. Local people also benefit, as the farm is one of the biggest employers in Karatu.

Extract ID: 5132

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Extract Date: 1932

Irish Olympic Council

This in fact brought a very special moment in Olympic history for Ireland. Within the short space of an hour Ireland won two Olympic gold medals on Monday, August 1st, 1932.

The first was won by Robert Morton Newburgh Tisdall, always known as simply Bob, who, although he was born in Ceylon, was thoroughly Irish by his lineage. His Olympic victory had the element of a fairy-tale about it.

Early in 1932, he wrote to General Eoin O'Duffy, then the President of the Irish Olympic Council and asked to be considered for the Irish Olympic Team in the 400 metres hurdles and he also confessed that he had not previously run in the event.

O'Duffy was immensely taken by the letter and later invited Tisdall to compete in a special Olympic trial at Croke Park in Dublin. Tisdall failed to make the qualifying time but O�Duffy gave him another chance and Bob Tisdall qualified for the Irish Team by winning the National 440 yards hurdles title at the Irish Championships also at Croke Park.

After winning his preliminary Olympic heat in Los Angeles, Bob Tisdall equalled the Olympic record of 52.8 seconds in the semi-final and then in the final, despite stumbling at the final hurdle, he won the Olympic gold medal in 51.7 seconds which would have been a world record but for the fact that he had knocked over the last hurdle and under the laws prevailing at the time this ruled out recognition of a world record.

Men's 400m. Hurdles Final. Olympic Games 1932

1. Robert Tisdall (IRL) 51.7 WR

2. Glenn HARDIN (USA) 51.9

3. F. Morgan TAYLOR (USA) 52.0

4. David BURGHLEY (GBR) 52.2

5. Luigi FACELLI (ITA) 53.0

6. Johan Kjell ARESKOURG (SWE) 54.6

Extract ID: 3858

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Extract Date: 1932

Robert Morton Newburgh (Bob) Tisdall

RTE web site, taken from Modern Irish Lives: Dictionary of 20th-century Biography, Louis McRedmond (General Ed.), Gill & Macmillan, Dublin, 1996

ROBERT MORTON NEWBURGH (Bob) Tisdall (1907 - ) athlete

Born 16th May 1907, Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)

Born to an Anglo-Irish family, he was raised in Nenagh, County Tipperary. He had run only six 400m hurdles when he won the gold medal at the 1932 Olympic Games in a world record time of 51.7 seconds, which was not recognised under the rules of time because he had a hit a hurdle. Earlier, while at Shrewsbury, he won the Public Schools 440 yards, and at Cambridge he won a record four events - 440 yards and 120 yards hurdles, long jump and shot - in the annual match against Oxford.

He set South African and Canadian records in the 220 yards low hurdles in 1929, a year later setting Greek records in the same event. While at Cambridge in March 1932, he decided to try for a place in the Irish Olympic squad and after he ran 54.2 seconds (a record) for the Irish Championship 440 yards hurdles in June that year, the authorities agreed to let him run in his new event at the Los Angeles Olympics, where he also came eighth in the decathlon. He eventually settled in Queensland, Australia.

Extract ID: 3860

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Extract Date: 1936

Centenary Medal

The Royal Scottish Geographical Society

Medalists and Award Winners

Centenary Medal (The Society's Research Medal, renamed the Centenary Medal in 1988)

In recognition of outstanding contributions in the field of Geographical enquiry and the development of Geography as a discipline.

Centenary Medal

1936 Clement Gillman

Extract ID: 4793

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Extract Date: 1950's


Sliders FAQ 2nd Edition: General Questions

Rhys-Davies went to school in Truro, Cornwall. His father had gone out to Africa after World War II, and the rest of the family joined him a few years later. It was in Tanzania, then called Tanganyika. He grew up partly on the coast, partly by Kilimanjaro, until he was sent back to England to be educated. He did not want to grow up in England, and wanted to go back to Africa and become a district commissioner and shoot things in the bush, he said in an SFX interview. He says that he has a hunter's values.

Extract ID: 5113

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Extract Author: Bob Tisdall
Extract Date: 1960

An Olympic Memory

Bob Tisdall, Olympic Gold Medallist, 400mH, 1932, in An Olympic Memory, Rome 1960

"Sport can open up a door, as it were, between men. The world is full of closed doors and drawn curtains, and this Olympic door must therefore never be closed. And those symbolic rings emblazoned above it must be kept bright and shining to bring that peace and goodwill for which the world is craving."

Extract ID: 3861

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Extract Date: 11 Sep 1963

Karatu 11Sept1963 LL6

On 11 September 1963, the Karatu meteorite fell at Tlae Daat, near Karatu, Arusha, Tanzania. A single stone of 2.2 kilograms was recovered. Karatu is an ordinary LL6 chondrite. The LL chondrites are somewhat lower in total iron content than 90% of the ordinary chondrites (e.g., the H and L chondrites). Like all ordinary chondrites, the LL chondrites are believed to be fragments of small or medium sized disrupted asteroids.

Extract ID: 5340

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Extract Date: 11 Sep 1963

KARATU, Tanzania - Witnessed Fall

This meteorite fell in Arusha, Tanzania, on 11 September 1963, and witnesses found only one stone weighing a scant 2.2 kilograms. Karatu is an Ordinary chondrite, LL6, is beautifully brecciated, and has a light gray matrix with very little metal flecking. It is seldom available to collectors as virtually all of it remains in museums.

The web site belongs to Schoolers, a mmineral, fossil and meteorite dealer. In March 2007 they had five fragments displayed (2 sold). .09g, 6.58g, 5.71g, 1.81g and 3.02g. Other sites, including ebay, are selling fragemnts of the meteorite.

Extract ID: 5339

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Extract Author: Tanzania Tourist Board
Extract Date: 1964

Facts About Tanzania

The word Tanzania is derived from the two nations of Tanganyika and Zanzibar which before 1964 were separate.

Tanganyika in Kiswahili, the local dialect (Swahili) is translated to mean "sail in the wilderness"

and Zanzibar is derived from the Arabic words "Zayn Z'al Barr" which mean "fair is this land".

Extract ID: 5559

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Extract Date: 1969

Tanzania Tourist Corporation (TTC) was established in 1969

Tanzania Tourist Corporation (TTC) was established in 1969. The TTC's role is to oversee the operation of hotels and other tourist facilities. Also, to head the marketing of tourism in Tanzania.

Lost the link for this, so not sure where this came from.

Extract ID: 1017

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Extract Author: Nettelbeck, David C
Extract Date: 1974

A history of Arusha School, Tanzania

THESES record number: T1053

Title: A history of Arusha School, Tanzania

Author: Nettelbeck, David C.

Award: M.Ed.

Department: Education

Thesis: Thesis

University: University of Adelaide

Year: 1974

Location: SAEM RARE 371.009678 N473H


Extract ID: 3728

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Extract Date: 1979

Part of a court ruling


Our conclusion [in the main case] finds significant support from Burke v. National Broadcasting Co., Inc., 598 F.2d 688 (1st Cir. 1979). Burke captured on film a highly unusual and dramatic encounter in which a zebra attacked a lioness who had killed the zebra's foal. Grzimek, a professor and a host of an educational television program, wrote Burke requesting permission to use the film in his lectures and in the educational television program. Burke responded affirmatively, sending Grzimek the film accompanied by a short reply that contained neither express authorization nor express restriction with respect to other possible uses of the film. Grzimek initially used the film only for the stated purposes, but later transmitted a copy of the film to a commercial company specializing in nature films, which in turn sold a production that included the film to NBC. The issue was whether Burke's common law copyright was forfeited to the public domain by virtue of the circumstances surrounding his seemingly unconditioned release of the film to Grzimek. In other words, the issue was whether there had been a general publication. The First Circuit held that only a limited publication had occurred, and that Burke's common law copyright had not been lost.

Extract ID: 5043

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Extract Date: 1992 onward

New horizons in hospitality

Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge


Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge is located on Lemala Hill on the eastern rim of the Ngorongoro Crater at 3�10'S and 35�42'E in the volcanic highlands of Northern Tanzania.

The crater forms part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, an area of 8,300 square kilometres (3,200 square miles) set aside to preserve and integrate the diverse interests of wildlife, people, forestry, archaeology and tourism.

Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge is the only tourist development on the previously undisturbed eastern side of the crater and is located on the eastern access road to the crater. The descent to the crater floor commences within five minutes of leaving the lodge.


The lodge is situated at 7,800ft (2,375 metres) above sea level and is therefore cool and even cold at certain times of the year. However, most days throughout the year have some sunshine, and sunbathers must take care at this altitude. Low cloud or early morning mist sometimes hides the crater, most times clearing unexpectedly to reveal spectacular views into and across the crater. June and July are the coldest months, and the rains of November and May bring out a profusion of wild flowers and lush grazing.


Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge, opened in 1992, is an all-suite lodge with 100 suites, all of which enjoy magnificent views into the crater. Each suite is fully carpeted and heated by oil fired central heating radiators. The spacious bedrooms contain two queen sized (5ft) beds with deep sprung mattresses to ensure a comfortable night's rest.

The fully tiled bathrooms are equipped to a very high standard with baths, showers, WCs, bidets, hand basins, hair driers and shaver sockets. Each suite has an enclosed 'solarium' with comfortable rocking chairs - the perfect place to relax.

A small private lounge with a writing desk and a drinks refrigerator provides extra privacy to the suite.


To reach the lodge, one takes the newly tarmaced main Dodoma road for 80 kilometres before turning off at Makuyuni and proceeding on all-weather roads via Mto wa mbu, Manyara and Karatu to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Climbing up the mountainous slopes to the crater rim at View Point, the new all-weather road to the lodge is 20 kilometres of scenic delight along the crater rim. The journey from Arusha to the lodge is approximately three-and-a-half hours long.

The flight to Ngorongoro takes approximately 40 minutes. The air strip is located on the western side of the crater, approximately 45 minutes away by road. There are plans to construct an air strip on the eastern side of the crater close to Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge. Cloud conditions can sometimes affect the availability of the air strip at Ngorongoro causing diversion or rescheduling to Manyara or Olduvai.


The lodge has a number of generators which provide electric current throughout the day and night. The current is 240 volts 50 cycles.


Water for lodge usage is obtained from bore holes and from the Munge River, but guests are advised not to drink tap water. Vacuum flasks or filtered water are placed in each suite and bottled water is available for sale in the lodge.


Sopa Lodges welcome children and can arrange for special children's meals at times which are suitable to each individual.

Guest shop

The main lobby houses a guest shop with a wide selection of curios, gift items, safari clothing, film and a selection of guest requisites.


As the lodge is situated at 7,800ft above sea level, the evenings and early mornings can be cool and sometimes cold. It is recommended that guests bring a sweater or a light jacket. However, it should be noted that on crater visits the temperature is much higher. All suites are centrally heated and the public areas of the lodge feature large log fires. The main areas of the lodge have an atmosphere which may encourage guests to wear something special for the evening.

Swimming pool

Located on the very edge of the crater rim, the water is bracing, but refreshing in the warmer months. Sunbeds and comfortable poolside furniture allow the less brave to enjoy the spectacular views and high altitude sunshine without getting wet.

Petrol station

The lodge can at present supply diesel fuel and will shortly have a petrol supply. Minor repairs can be carried out by the lodge mechanic, although guests are advised to ensure that their vehicles have been correctly maintained prior to the safari.

Crater tours

The lodge has a number of four-wheel drive vehicles for hire for trips to the crater or other excursions. Full-day, half-day, early morning or sundowner trips can be pre-booked or arranged at the lodge. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority maintain an office at the lodge to provide information and issue the necessary permits for entry into the Conservation Area and to the crater.

Excursions and nearby places of interest

Empakaai Crater is approximately two hours' drive on a dirt road from the lodge. It is a totally unspoilt, rarely visited mountainous crater region, with unsurpassed views of the still active volcano Ol Donyo Lengai and north over Lake Natron.

Olmoti Crater, yet another rarely visited crater, is approximately one hour's drive from the lodge. Here, guests can hire a guide and walk up to the crater rim.

Olduvai Gorge, the famous archaeological site, is about one-and-a-half hours' drive from the lodge. The site houses a visitor centre and a museum.


A 2,500 square foot conference facility is available for conferences, meetings, presentations, private lunches or dinners and cocktail parties. Situated on a level above the main lounge it enjoys the most spectacular views of the crater.

Special occasions

The lodge is capable of providing a wide range of additional options for special occasions, from a birthday or anniversary cake to special dinners, large parties, bush breakfasts, sundowners, barbeques and African Theme Nights.


The lodge is connected to Arusha by radio link. Video and satellite television is available.

Coffee shop

The coffee shop is situated in the main lobby, and provides tea and coffee for guests from early morning until late. Afternoon tea is a speciality.

Sopa hospitality

All the management and staff of the lodge are committed to looking after guests and to ensure that their stay is comfortable and enjoyable. Our policy of friendly helpfulness is planned to make each and every guest feel welcome and cared for during their stay. Our aim is to provide the type of hospitality which complements the magnificent natural beauty of Ngorongoro Crater.


Reservations can be made through any travel agent or tour operator, or through the Central Reservations Office in Arusha.

Telephone: Arusha 6886/6896

Fax: Arusha 8245

PO Box 1823, Arusha, Tanzania

or through Kenya Holiday Management Services

Telephone: Nairobi 336724/337410

Fax: Nairobi 331876

PO Box 72630, Nairobi, Kenya

Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge is managed by:

Sopa Management Ltd

PO Box 1823



a wholly owned subsidiary of Consolidated Tourist & Hotels Investment Limited

Extract ID: 1432

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Extract Author: Wolf Roder
Extract Date: 1995 June 1

the following should be mentioned

University of Cincinnati

I think the following should be mentioned: Roland Arnold Young and Henry Fosbrooke,

'Smoke in the Hills: political tension in the Morogoro District of Tanganyika' (Evanston: Northwestern U. Press, 1960)

This is a singularly inept title. The book is in fact about violent and other resistance to terracing and other conservation measures in Morogoro. I remember the introductory chapter talking about conservation measures in eastern Africa in general.

Found in a newsgroup thread. Lost the link.

Extract ID: 246

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Extract Date: June 20 1996

Cornell alumni gather to celebrate Dr. Michael Latham June 20-24

Latham, a physician, stepped down several years ago as director of Cornell's Program in International Nutrition after 25 years. An expert in international nutrition and tropical public health, he also is author of several books, including Kilimanjaro Tales: The Saga of a Medical Family in Africa, Human Nutrition in Tropical Africa and Human Nutrition in the Developing World, and more than 350 journal articles. He frequently serves as a consultant in Africa, Asia and Latin America for WHO, FAO, UNICEF, the World Bank and the White House. In 1994, he consulted with Fidel Castro on how to curb Cuba's neuropathy epidemic.

In 1965 at age 37, Latham was awarded the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for his work on developing the nutrition unit. The award also recognized his leadership in establishing the International School, an integrated primary school in Dar es Salaam.

Extract ID: 4322

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Extract Date: June 20 1996

Latham Friends and Associates reprise '93 celebration

Latham, a physician, was born in Tanzania and studied medicine at Trinity College in Dublin. He received a degree in tropical medicine and hygiene from London University and a master of public health degree from Harvard University.

From 1955 to 1964 he was district medical officer and director of the nutrition unit of the Ministry of Health in Tanzania. In 1965 he was awarded the Order of the British Empire for distinguished service. He joined the Cornell faculty in 1968 after four years at Harvard.

Latham has authored more than 350 journal articles as well as several books. One of his books, Kilimanjaro Tales: The Saga of a Medical Family in Africa, combined his and his mother's accounts of their life in Tanzania when he was a boy.

Extract ID: 4323

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Extract Date: 1997

'Mother' of coffee culture

Wild Arabica Coffee was introduced in Tanzania by Christian missionaries from the Island of Re-union (Bourbon) between 1980s [sic] and 1890s, and was first grown at Kilema Mission on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Coffee spread slowly to other regions of Tanzania and later to Kenya, thus crowning Tanzania as the `Mother' of Coffee culture.

For years, Coffee has been Tanzania's primary forex earner, providing the country with between 26 and 35 per cent of its foreign income

Lost the link for this, so not sure where this came from.

Extract ID: 1412

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Extract Author: Robert Weiss, Palo Alto, California
Extract Date: 8 February 1998

Polish Children's Home Oudtshoorn, South Africa 1942-1947 (Draft:)


The following is a roster of the 500 Polish children who were removed from Poland and sent to an orphanage in the Union of South Africa, where they remained until after the conclusion of the Second World War. There is great interest on the part of Holocaust survivors in determining their origins, especially difficult task when information on their parents or their place of origin is unknown. I hope the publication of this list may help in their search.


On 17 September 1939, two weeks after the German invasion of Poland, Soviet troops swiftly occupied the eastern half of Poland and, after a plebiscite, annexed the area to the Ukraine and Belorussia. Beginning in the winter of 1939-40 Soviet authorities deported over a million Poles, many of them children, to the various provinces in the Soviet Union. Almost one third of the deportees were Jewish.

For a description of the life of the deportees during this period the reader is referred to the Hoover Archival Documentary War Through Children's Eyes, a collection of essays written by the children like the subjects of this paper.

In the summer of 1941 the Polish government in exile in London received permission from the Soviet Union to release several hundred thousand former Polish citizens from labor camps, prisons and forcible resettlement in the Soviet Union, to organize military units among the Polish deportees, and later to transfer Polish civilians to camps in the British-controlled Middle East and Africa. There the Polish children were able to attend Polish schools.

In 1942, the London government, acting through their Consul General Dr. Mi. Stanislaw Lepkowski, secured permission from the government of the Union of South Africa to transport 500 of the estimated 220-250,000 children to that country. In 1943, after they had been evacuated through the southern Soviet republics to Iran, the children were brought to South Africa.

The Polish Children's Home (Dom Polskich Dzieci) was organized in Oudtshoorn for their temporary accommodation, care and education. Under the supervision of the South African Department of Social Welfare, as well as Polish consular and ministry representatives, it remained in operation until 1947.


Also in October of 1944, arrangements were made with the East African Refugee Administration to transfer another small group of nine children to Polish camps in Bwana Mkubwa, Abercorn and Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia to rejoin their families. The transfer took place early in 1945.

Some time in 1944 another, large, transfer was made of 115 children to camps in Kenya. The lists document the entry into Kenya of 43 children to Camps in Tengeru, 43 to Masindi, 21 to Koja, 5 to Ifunda, 1 to Morongo or Rongai and 2 to Kidugala.

Extract ID: 3798

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Extract Date: 1999 September 2

No survivors in crash of plane carrying U.S. tourists in Tanzania

CNN ARUSHA, Tanzania (Reuters)

All 10 U.S. tourists aboard a light aircraft died when it smashed into a mountain near a Tanzanian game park, rescue officials said on Thursday.

'They are still looking around the site, but there is no hope of finding survivors,' an official told Reuters. He said they had found 10 identifiable bodies and the scattered remains of two other people.

The Cessna aircraft belonging to Northern Air went down about 11 a.m. (0800 GMT) on Wednesday as it took the tourists from Serengeti national park to an airport near Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's largest mountain.

Rescuers who worked through the night to reach the crash site said the plane smashed into Mount Meru at 2,580 metres (8,500 feet) and appeared to have burst into flames.

'They found the plane wreckage at around 4 a.m. (0100 GMT),' said Margaret Muyangi, head of Tanzania's Civil Aviation Authority. 'It was very foggy and difficult to work out there.'

On Wednesday, a U.S. embassy spokesman in Nairobi confirmed that 10 Americans -- six men and four women -- were on board the aircraft along with a Tanzanian tour guide and a pilot whose nationality he did not know.

Visitors were on luxury tour

The spokesman said the tourists, three couples and a group of four came from Florida, Massachusetts, Connecticut, California and New Jersey.

Seven other American tourists from the same group but on a different plane arrived safely at Kilimanjaro Airport.

They had been on a luxury tour organized by Abercrombie & Kent, staying at the Serena Wildlife Lodge, an upmarket safari camp in the Serengeti.

The crash site was on the southeastern slopes of Mount Meru, a 4,565-meter (14,979-foot) high mountain 50 km (30 miles) west of Kilimanjaro.

Kilimanjaro, although close to the equator, is permanently snow-capped and both mountains are frequently shrouded in heavy cloud.

The Serengeti draws tens of thousands of tourists every year who come to see its wide range of big game animals and the annual migration of millions of wildebeest.

Mount Kilimanjaro, which stands at 5,895 metres (19,347 feet), also attracts thousands of hikers and climbers.

In Washington, the State Department said it was notifying the families of the 10 American tourists listed as passengers.

Copyright 1999 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved.

I think this was on a CNN news page.

Extract ID: 1396

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Extract Date: 14 October 1999

Obituaries for Julius Nyrere

Press Coverage from the Internet. Follow the link to load a MS Word Document (113 pages 663KBytes.) About 100 articles.

Julius Nyerere

14 October 1999

ANC Statement On The Death Of Julius Kambarage "Mwalimu" Nyerere

African National Congress of South Africa

PanAfrican News Agency

Tanzania's First President Dies In Britain


James D. Wolfensohn Statement On The Death Of Julius Nyerere

15 October 1999


Tributes pour in for Nyerere

Julius Nyerere: The conscience of Africa

E-mails tell of Nyerere's honesty and humility

Text of President Mkapa's address to the nation

Nyerere: A personal recollection

Songs of grief for Tanzania's founder

Tanzania prepares for Nyerere funeral


Julius Nyerere, the elder statesman of post-colonial Africa, dies, aged 77

Third World visionary who brought socialism to the villages

'I learnt at his feet ... he was our guru'

The Nation (Nairobi)

A Symbol Of Africa's Hope

The Times Of Zambia (Lusaka)

Tanzanians say goodbye to Mwalimu

The Times



Africans mourn death of the father of Tanzania

The Independent


16 October 1999

Panafrican News Agency

President Clinton Pays Tribute To Nyerere

Nyerere To Be Laid To Rest At His Butiama Home

The Times of Zambia (Lusaka)

We've been robbed of great leader-- Chiluba

Financial Times


Idealism in a cynical world

The Nation (Nairobi)

Mwalimu Nyerere's bequest to Mkapa a tall order

17 October 1999

The Monitor (Kampala)

Kwa heri, Mtukufu Rais Julius K. Nyerere

Panafrican News Agency

Tanzanians In UK Bid Farewell To Nyerere

World Leaders Continue To Send Condolences

The Nation (Nairobi)

Mwalimu's rise to power

Mwalimu's enduring legacy

Independent on Sunday

18 October 1999


Julius Nyerere

Richard Gott writes:

Simon Barley writes:

Ronald Segal writes:

Chandra Hardy writes:


Email tributes


The Meaning Of "Mwalimu"

Panafrican News Agency

Half A Million Tanzanians Welcome Nyerere's Body

Museveni To Lead Delegation To Nyerere's Funeral

19 October 1999


Nyerere's return

The Times

Thousands flock to see Nyerere's coffin come home

New Vision (Kampala)

Nyerere Body Arrives In Dar

The Times of Zambia (Lusaka)

Chiluba declares four-day national mourning

20 October 1999


Tanzania weeps for father of the nation


World leaders arrive to honour Nyerere

Julius Nyerere: Political messiah or false prophet?

Panafrican News Agency

Nyerere's Daughter Denied Holy Communion

Wrangle Over Nyerere's Final Resting Place Solved

18 Heads Of State To Pay Respects To Nyerere

The Monitor (Kampala)

Dreams that never died

21 October 1999


World leaders honour Nyerere

Panafrican News Agency

Academician Revisits Nyerere's Development Vision

Rwandan TV Airs Nyerere's Funeral Ceremony Live

22 October 1999


The world turns out to honour Nyerere


Nyerere, flawed fighter of colonialism, buried as hero

The Times

Leaders pay their repects to Nyerere

New Vision (Kampala)

World Pays Last Respects To Mwalimu Nyerere

Museveni Joins World In Mourning Nyerere

The Monitor (Kampala)

Big farewell for Nyerere

Business Day (Johannesburg)

Tanzania And The World Say Their Farewells To Nyerere

The Times of Zambia (Lusaka)

Nyerere was a great African statesman - Chiluba

Panafrican News Agency

Tanzanians Pay Homage To Nyerere On Eve Of Burial

Nyerere Provided Haven For Late Banda's Opponents

Downpour, Wind, Mark Arrival Of Nyerere's Body

23 October 1999


Julius Nyerere


Tanzania's unity weakens without Nyerere

Panafrican News Agency

The Road Ends For One Of Africa's Greatest Sons


Nyerere laid to rest

24 October 1999

The Monitor - Kampala

Mandela to visit Nyerere's grave

Nyerere's not so sweet side

The Nation.

Remembering a great son of Africa [Analysis]

Canto for hope

Panafrican News Agency

The Road Ends For One Of Africa's Greatest Sons

26 October 1999

The East African

As 'Kingmaker' Dies, Whither Tanzania Politics and Society

Ever the Idealist, Nyerere's Legacy is Everlasting

There Was Real Freedom in Mwalimu's Day

Painful Loss of a Friend, Mentor and Nationalist Par Excellence

Death Puts Nyerere Biography in Limbo

Leaders Pay Tribute to Mwalimu

Sporting Events Postponed in Honour of Nyerere

27 October 1999

Panafrican News Agency

Spirit Sends Soldiers Scampering For Safety

Business Day (Johannesburg)

Nyerere No Great Leader, But Ensured Poverty For Tanzania (Column)

28 October 1999

Southern African Research and Documentation Centre

Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere- A Remembrance

Southern African Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC)-

Address To Members Of Parliament: By Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere

UN Integrated Regional Information Network

IRIN Focus on the union

29 October 1999

All Africa News Agency

Julius Nyerere: A Concrete Example Of Commitment

Who Else Would Get The Credit For Peace And Unity?

The Day The Villagers Lost Their Favourite Son

Panafrican News Agency

Tanzanian Authorities Crackdown On Poachers

The East African

He Did Not Think His Life Was in Danger

South Africa Remembers Nyerere as One of Its Own

Balancing Relative Values at the Funeral (Opinion)

A Legacy of Unity, But Not of Democracy (Opinion)

Why Mwalimu Never Went Out of Fashion (Opinion)

Coach Nyerere is Gone, the Team Must Play On

30 October 1999

Panafrican News Agency

Nyerere Mourning Regulations Relaxed


Saints and Presidents: A Commentary on Julius Nyerere

Extract ID: 3881

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Extract Author: Nichole Smaglick (?)
Extract Date: 2000 June

The Old Man of Mt. Kilimanjaro

The Honeyguide Newsletter

The words 'Mt. Kilimanjaro' conjure up romantic images of personal growth, challenge, defeat, and success. We have seen pictures and heard stories. The climbers of the first Mt. Kilimanjaro climb in 1889 had only their courage, passion and naivet� pushing them on. When asked, 'Who was the first to climb Mt. Kilimanjaro?', the most common reply is Hans Meyer of Germany. Hans Meyer is credited with the vision behind the expedition, but who was his guide?

Yohani Kinyala Lauwo was only eighteen years old when he led Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller to the highest point of Africa on October 5th, 1889. His selection by the Mangi (Chagga chief) to be Hans Meyer's guide was accidental, but it forever changed his life. Kinyala (as he was called) was born and lived his entire life in the village of Marangu, nestled on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Before Europeans came to East Africa, many of the Lauwo clan of the Chagga tribe hunted the forest elephants for ivory and sold it to the Swahili traders from the coast. The forest also supplied them with honey, timber, medicine and Colobus monkey hides. By the time Hans Meyer arrived in Chaggaland, Kinyala Lauwo was a tall teenager who knew the forest like the back of his hand. By then, colonialism had started in Kinyala's homeland and young men were being forced to construct roads. Kinyala tried to dodge the 'draft', but was caught. As a result, he was summoned for trial at Mangi Marealli's palace. Coincidentally, Hans Meyer had just arrived at the palace asking for permission to climb the mountain and guides and porters. The Mangi's wachili (advisors) spotted Kinyala, knew that he was of the Lauwo clan, and asked him to guide the expedition.

The event led Kinyala (later called Mzee Lauwo) to guide Mt. Kilimanjaro climbs for more than seventy years! For his first climb, he was only wrapped in blankets. Over the years, he obtained appropriate clothing and hiking gear. When Mzee Lauwo turned one-hundred years old, the Tanzania National Parks gave him a beautiful, modern style house painted in light purple and pink pastels. Here he lived with his two wives until his death on May 10th, 1996, after a grand life of a one-hundred twenty-five years!

Extract ID: 5405

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Extract Author: Gregory C. Emmanuel,
Extract Date: December 2000

Grandfather Gregory Emmanuel "Nisiotis" (1875 - 1977)

This is the story of Grandfather Gregory's life from information contributed by his sons, Constantine (Costas) and Dimitri G. Emmanuel, and his daughter, Eleni P. Lekanidou (nee Emmanuel).

On their trip to Tenedos in July 1998, Dimitri G. Emmanuel and his family, and his sister Eleni P. Lekanidou, located the ancestral family house where their father grew up . The house, which was built by their grandfather Constantine N. Emmanuel "Nisiotis" around 1853, is still in excellent shape and now is a hotel . The Turkish lady that owned it kindly let them in to look around. Eleni and Dimitri also located the white marble headstone from their grandfather's Constantine's grave . It was found some distance away from the desecrated Greek Orthodox cemetery and lay beneath some bushes along the sides of the town's main square. The lettering on the headstone was made by pouring molten lead into the lettering incised in the marble. The lead letters that were originally there have all been removed, but one can still see the small holes that were used to fasten them to the marble.

As a boy, Grandfather Gregory attended the best Greek school in Asia Minor, the Grand National Academy in Constantinople, graduating in 1894 . In 1895 he signed his French-Greek dictionary using the family nickname, Nisiotis . You can read all about the origins and evolution of the family surname here.

Soon after his father passed away, Grandfather Gregory left Tenedos on one of the family�s sailing ships (probably the 200-ton bratsera Agia Trias) with a cargo of the family's wine and sailed up the Black Sea coast to Romania. He arrived there only to find that another captain from Tenedos, also with a cargo of wine, had come ahead of him and flooded the market, so Grandfather couldn�t sell his wine. Instead, he opened a taverna and over the next few months disposed of all his cargo, selling it as the taverna�s house wine. Following his trip to Romania Grandfather returned to Tenedos and, after some time, left for Egypt, which had a large and thriving Greek community, to seek his fortune . There he worked as an engineer for the Suez Canal . In Alexandria he met Constantine Meimaridis, a good friend of his from Tenedos, who persuaded him that there were good prospects in East Africa.

At that time there was a great deal of railway-related construction going on in the Kilimanjaro area of Deutsch-Ostafrika (present-day Tanzania), and a lot of cargo was being landed in Mombasa, British East Africa (present-day Kenya) , and transported by train to Voi. From Voi cargo was hauled by ox-wagon over a rough track through thick bush to Moshi (present-day Old Moshi), Deutsch-Ostafrika, as there was no road or railway line connecting the two towns. But the ox-wagons couldn�t haul very bulky or heavy loads. Meimaridis had purchased a steam traction engine, or road locomotive , and intended to take over the heavy transport business between Voi and Moshi , a distance of about 90 miles. He offered a partnership to Grandfather, who accepted.

Sometime in the early 1900s the two friends sailed from Alexandria to Mombasa, where the dismantled and crated steam engine waited. (They became two of the first Greeks in East Africa, and many of the Greeks who later settled in Tanganyika were their relatives and friends from Tenedos). The two men loaded everything on the train and went up the line to Voi, where they established themselves and assembled the large machine with the help of an Indian mechanic. The machine was named Tinga-tinga , a phonetic Swahili nickname derived from the pinging noises the large flywheel made as it turned. But Tinga-tinga was just too heavy and cumbersome to negotiate the primitive track. It often sank through the soft sand and got stuck , or it would smash through the crude wooden bridges at stream crossings, and in the rainy season it would get thoroughly bogged down in the viscous African mud. The number of successful trips made are unknown and we have no descriptions of these trips.

Around 1908 The plan to revolutionize the cargo hauling business in East Africa was given up and the partnership dissolved. As compensation, Meimaridis gave Tinga-tinga to Grandfather, who put it to good use. For the next two years he hauled building materials and other heavy freight around the Moshi area, and sometimes used it as a tractor, contracting with farmers to plough their fields. Tinga-tinga was eventually sold to a German settler in the Moshi area, who dismantled it and mounted the boiler and engine on a permanent base to power a saw-mill, where it operated until the end of its useful life. In West Kilimanjaro, Tanganyika, a short distance north of Engare Nairobi, there is a place marked on the maps as Tinga Tinga. The origin of the name is unknown, but perhaps some other steam traction engine met its end at that location.

After the Tinga-tinga venture, Grandfather became a contractor for the Dar-es-Salaam to Kigoma (on Lake Tanganyika) railway construction project , where he made good money. In early 1920 he returned to the Moshi area and, after borrowing money from another Greek from Tenedos, Nicholaos Christofis, he bought two farms from the original German owners and so became one of the first Greeks to settle permanently in Tanganyika. Christofis became Grandfather�s silent partner. Also, he was my father's (Costas) godfather. He was bought out by Costas, Dimitri, and Nikos Emmanuel in 1946. Both farms were located in the foothills of Mt. Kilimanjaro, just north of Moshi. Chombo was a fairly well developed coffee estate at Uru, while Lambo had been abandoned for some years and had just a few scraggly coffee trees in it, at Machame.

Grandfather lived at Chombo, where his first house had mud walls, an earthen floor, and a grass thatched roof. The house at Lambo, which was built of large river stones with a corrugated metal roof, was much smaller then than it is now. There was no verandah at the Lambo house; instead, a huge bougainvillea covered the whole front of the building and part of the roof. When Grandfather went to take possession he found a large male lion snoozing under the bougainvillea. Fortunately it ran off into the bush when it realized there were people about.

In 1920, when he was 45 years old, Grandfather returned to Tenedos to find a bride and get married. On that trip he wrote a postcard to a friend in East Africa, telling him how hard it was to find a bride. However, on September 9, he married Irini D. Perrou , my grandmother, who was 24 years old at the time . She was a refined, cultured woman, who spoke French and played the piano. She was also very high-strung, a contrast to Grandfather, who was calm and quiet to an extreme.

Sometime after their return to East Africa, probably in 1921, Grandfather tore down the mud house at Chombo and built a new one, of cement blocks with a metal roof. For the next four years Grandfather and Grandmother were busy having children; in 1922 they had a daughter, my aunt Eleni Lekanidou, in �23 my father, Constantine (Costas), was born , and in �24 and �25 they had two more sons, Dimitrios (Dimitris) and Nicholas (Nikos), my uncles.

In 1922 Greece�s initially successful campaign to recapture Constantinople and the formerly Greek lands of Asia Minor ended in disastrous defeat. With the 1923 Treaty of Lausane, Tenedos and the Moskhonisia, the Emmanuels' ancestral homelands, were formally ceded to the newly formed, ultra-nationalistic and militant Turkish state which had replaced the moribund Ottoman Empire. During the pogroms and the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey that followed, about 1.3 million Greeks left their homes in Asia Minor and sought refuge in mainland Greece and other countries. As a result, during the 1920s the Greek population of East Africa grew dramatically. A large number of Greeks, many from Tenedos, came to Tanganyika, where Greeks became the second largest expatriate European community (Germans being the largest group). In both Moshi and Arusha there were thriving Greek communities and the need arose for a Greek school. As the house at Lambo was vacant, Grandfather leased it to the Greek community and it became the first Greek school in East Africa. It was a boarding school and was the first school attended by my father, Costas. (He told me that a student who sleepwalked was taken during the night by a leopard.)

Sometime in the 1920s Grandfather acquired his first car. Being a thrifty person, he economized on fuel by shifting into neutral and freewheeling all the way from his farm down to Moshi, a distance of about 10 miles. Of course, this played hell with the brakes. Also, it is said that the grevillia trees that lined the narrow, potholed dirt road on both sides bore scrape marks as evidence of his passage.

My father, Costas, told me this story from the early 1930s:

One night all of us were piled in Father's car, a Ford Model A, returning to Chombo in a heavy rain sometime in the masika (rainy season). There were Nikos, Eleni, Dimitris, your grandmother Irini, myself, and your grandfather Gregory, who was driving. There was also another Greek in there with us. Well, at some point we got stuck in the mud and we all got out while the old man, my father, tried to jack the car up. But there was too much mud and the jack wouldn't work. So your grandfather asked the Greek fellow to go find a block of wood to put under the jack, and off the fellow went into the coffee trees to look for a suitable piece of wood, in total darkness, in the rain. He didn't have matches or a torch (flashlight) with him. After a while he came back holding something big and shiny, and it looked heavy. When he got close to us the thing he was carrying started to move and he dropped it and ran yelling back to the car. It turns out that in the dark he had picked up a large coiled python, mistaking it for a block of wood.

Grandfather and Grandmother wanted their children to have a Greek education, but as the school at Lambo offered only a primary education, they decided to send the children to Greece. In 1933, Grandmother Irini and her four children left for Greece on the Deutsch-Ostafrika Linie ship S.S.Usukuma. In Athens the boys were enrolled in the Athens College, considered to be Greece's best school at the time. They leased a house at 163 Kifisias Avenue in Ambelokipi, a suburb of Athens. Grandfather came to see them for short visit in 1937 and then returned to Tanganyika.

Three years later, on October 28, 1940, war came to Greece when the Italian Army invaded through Albania. Grandmother wanted to return to Tanganyika and, after a lot of searching, she found tickets on a ship leaving for Egypt. On their way to the harbor to board it, the ship was bombed and sank, so Grandmother Irini and her children were trapped in Greece for the duration of the war and for part of the Greek civil war which followed, enduring incredible hardships. Irini and her three sons were finally able to leave and rejoin Grandfather in Tanganyika in 1945 , after a separation of 8 years. Their daughter Eleni and her family arrived in Tanganyika the following year.

At that time Grandfather worked the coffee farm at Chombo. His partnership with his nephew, Stelios, to develop the property at Lambo had just ended with the completion of agreed-upon work. So his eldest son, Constantine (Costas, my father), took over as manager at Lambo.

After the war the price of coffee was very high and Grandfather was able to pay off all the debts incurred by Grandmother during the occupation fairly quickly. (Paying off these wartime debts was an accomplishment; many people refused to do so, instead accusing their lenders of taking unfair advantage of them during the war). Since Grandfather was now financially solvent, his sons persuaded him to end the one-sided partnership with Christofis. Grandfather agreed and his son Dimitri went to see Christofis at his residence in Cairo. Christofis agreed to the dissolution, so the four brothers bought him out and in partnership with their father became the outright owners of Lambo and developed it as a sisal estate.

My mother told me that when I was born in 1953 Grandfather was very excited because I would be the first grandson who would bear his name. During the few weeks after I was born, he would visit every day to make sure that my eyes stayed blue, like his.

Grandfather continued working the coffee estate at Chombo until 1960. That same year Grandmother Irini passed on at the age of 64. Chombo was then sold and Grandfather retired; he was then 85. He left East Africa and returned to Greece for good in 1964 , the same year as his son Dimitri. In Athens he lived in an apartment at Spartis 7 Street, in the same building as his daughter Eleni, who lived on the 7th floor.

Grandfather's life in Athens was radically different from his way of life in Tanganyika . He usually wore a dark suit and a tie, and sometimes a hat. Every day his routine was exactly the same. He got up, shaved, had a healthy breakfast, and would go for a walk which ended at Platia Amerikis. He always patronized the same kafenio, where he sat with his friends discussing the news of the day, reading the paper, and watching people go by. Then lunch with some wine, a nap, and in the afternoon another walk and another kafenio session. Back to his house for dinner and some more wine, and then he would read and go to sleep. He ate a lot of yogurt, vegetables, and fruit, loved fish, and always drank wine with his meals. His habits were so regular you could set your watch by him. His children paid a housekeeper to clean and cook for him.

In Athens, Grandfather had a tan Peugeot 403 car and a hired driver, Anestis, who was a Greek refuge from Asia Minor. In the 1960s, when I was in boarding school at the Athens College, Grandfather would sometimes come to school to pick me up for the weekend and deliver me to my aunt Eleni, my guardian (as my parents were in in Africa). One time he took me to see the war movie "The Sands of Iwo Jima" just to please me.

When my family moved to Athens and lived in the apartment at Spartis 3, Grandfather would often come to visit. He would sit quietly, not saying much at all, and not hearing much either because he was losing his hearing, while we would try and make shouted, uneasy conversation. But Grandfather was quite content to sit quietly, just enjoying the companionship. A few hours later he would slowly get up and wander on home. When TV first came to Greece in the late 1960s Grandfather bought one and spent most evenings watching terrible, black and white Greek movies or the news. Sometimes my sister, Elli, and I would go over and watch the Lucy Show or Lassie. We would leave with our ear drums ringing as the volume was always too loud.

Grandfather spoke Greek, Turkish, English, Swahili, and some French. He was a tall, good looking man. One summer in the 1970s he came to visit us on his way to his afternoon kafenio session. He had just returned from a week-long holiday at Loutraki, a popular seaside vacation spot, and he looked great; he was deeply tanned and his blue eyes sparkled, and he was full of humor. As he left for the kafenio he chuckled and said, " Well, I guess I'll go to the kafenio to see which one of my friends died while I was gone, and which one is left." He was in his late 90s then and had just started to use a walking stick.

Once, my uncle Dimitri and I were talking to Grandfather about his days on Tenedos and about the sailing ship that his family owned. To our great surprise, he easily drew a remarkably accurate outline of it on a piece of paper.

In 1977 Grandfather Gregory fell in his bathtub and broke his hip. He was taken to the KAT hospital in Athens and to everyone's amazement the broken bones healed. Unfortunately, the prolonged period of immobility and lying on his back required to heal his hip led to pneumonia. On May 24 he passed away from complications due to pneumonia, at the age of 102. My Uncle Dimitri says that he was "blessed to the end of his long life with an amazing clarity of mind and remarkable memory."

Extract ID: 4292

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Extract Date: 31/5/1978 1978 May/June


Mother Earth News May/June 1978

(Appropriate Technology . . . That's Appropriate for the Homesteader!)

So. You've finally moved out onto your own piece of land . . . "gettin' there" by the honest sweat of your brow. The only trouble is you've got a source of water anywhere from 50 to 250 feet beneath your boots . . . but no easy or affordable way to get that life-giving fluid up to the surface where you and your livestock and your crops can use it.

Son of a gun. If you just had a windmill! Not a complicated big-bucks machine that only Rube Goldberg could understand and Rockefeller could afford. No . . . what you really need is a simple unit that you�with, maybe, a bit of metalworking skill and a little help from your friends�can put together for, perhaps, a couple of hundred dollars ( less, if you'll do some scrounging . . . and what homesteader doesn't!).

Well, children, that's exactly the kind of water-pumping windmill that a fellow named Dick Stanley has been building recently in the Arusha region of Tanzania, Africa.

Now, if you didn't already know, the Arusha region of the Third World nation of Tanzania ain't exactly what you'd call The Garden Spot of the World when it comes to developing something like a windmill. Folks in the area don't have a whole lot of money to plow into experimental work on such things (or to spend on finished machines even after the expensive experimental work is done) . . . the wind can be extremely variable up Arusha way . . . wells are sometimes 250 feet deep . . . there are, in general, only the most rudimentary tools and materials and skills to work with . . . and, even after you have your basic machine up and running, there are darned few (like, maybe, none at all) servicemen around to come out and repair the blighter when a windstorm puts a crimp in its tail.

Add all those facts together, and you've got quite a challenge on your hands. A challenge, amazingly enough, that Dick Stanley has more than met by designing a water-pumping windmill which is:

[1] LOW IN COST. At $250 or so, The Arusha Windmill costs only a fraction of a commercially manufactured, imported machine's $2,000 to $6,000 price tag.

[2] HIGHLY ADAPTABLE. With its large tail and lightweight blades, Stanley's wind-powered water pumper can respond to shifting breezes far more rapidly than conventional windmills.

[3] ABLE TO "REACH WAY DOWN". Thanks to its unique "eccentric wheel", The Arusha Windmill can raise water from as deep as 250 feet in the ground. This is a far greater pumping capacity than any other low-cost machine can offer . . . and, in fact, matches the lifting ability of very expensive, commercially made units.

[4] CONSTRUCTED FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS. Dick Stanley's design is fabricated entirely from ordinary standard sizes of water pipe and other materials that are found in almost every small town in every part of the world.

[5] PUT TOGETHER WITH LOCALLY AVAILABLE TOOLS. The Arusha Windmill is easily constructed with the most basic welding, cutting, etc., equipment . . . the kind that is commonly available today in even the most primitive Third World settlement.

[6] FABRICATED WITH LOCAL SKILLS. Only the simplest metalworking shop techniques�which, again, are readily found nowadays in even the most backward villages of almost the entire world�are needed to construct The Arusha Windmill.

[7] EASY TO MAINTAIN AND REPAIR. Dick Stanley's water pumper�unlike so many machines currently designed and manufactured in the "advanced" nations�is extremely easy to repair right out in the field with only the most rudimentary tools, skills, and materials.

To put it another way, Dick Stanley's Arusha windmill has�just flat out�been conceived and refined specifically for low-cost, trouble-free operation under the most primitive conditions. Which, of course, makes it an ideal water pumper for Tanzania and other Third World nations. And which�perhaps not quite so obviously�also makes it a nearly ideal wind-driven water pumper . . . For . . . . Many . . . . . Back-to-the-landers right here in

North America too!

And if you think that sounds good, you ain't even heard the best part yet: The good folks at VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) and VIA (Volunteers in Asia) have persuaded Dick Stanley�with a little help from Ken Darrow�to put all his Arusha windmill knowledge, expertise, and experience into a really nifty little 58-page handbook. And this guide� The Arusha Windmill: A Construction Manual �is available from Appropriate Technology Project, Volunteers in Asia, Box 4543, Stanford, Calif. 94305 or from Volunteers in Technical Assistance, 3706 Rhode Island Ave., Mt. Rainier, Md. 20822. The price from either source is only $3.00 (a super bargain) postpaid . . . But, if you've got a heart, you'll slip an extra buck into your envelope for postage and handling. Or, if you prefer, The Arusha Windmill is also available by mail from Mother's Bookshelf, ,P.O. Box 70, Hendersonville, N.C. 28739 for $3.00 plus 95d shipping and handling.

Even if you aren't thinking of putting up a windmill at this time�even if you don't have a place to erect a windmill!�get this book. It's a gem of clear, concise, and rational design work . . . Beautifully presented in words and pictures that anyone who can read should be able to understand. At the least, the mini-manual will give you a delightful and easily digested crash course in basic mechanics. At the most, it just might guarantee you a source of "free as the wind" water . . . Someday . . . In some place . . . When you really need it.

Extract ID: 5616

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Extract Date: 2002

Tipperary: Olympic champion represented on film

The Irish Emigrant

When the statues of Nenagh's three Olympic champions were officially unveiled last week the ceremony was enlivened by a film featuring the only survivor, ninety-five-year-old Bob Tisdall. Bob, who won the 400m hurdles at the 1932 Olympic Games, was not able to make the journey from Australia for the ceremony, but he expressed his pleasure at having a statue honouring his achievement. The film was shown to some three hundred guests in the Dromineer Bay Hotel after the unveiling by Ronnie Delaney, another Olympic champion. Bob Tisdall had lived in Summerhill, Monsea and Hazelpoint, Dromineer.

Extract ID: 3859

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Extract Date: Jan 2002

German East Africa 100 Rupien 15.6.1905

CASE # 0003. Liebe Sammlerfreunde,

die nachstehende Banknote der Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Bank wurde mir im Januar

2002 auf dem Postwege gestohlen. Falls Du diese Banknote angeboten bekommst oder

Informationen �ber den Verbleib dieser Banknote hast, sende mir bitte umgehend eine


Ist Dir ebenfalls eine Banknote gestohlen worden, sende mir aussagekr�ftige Daten

(idealerweise ein Bild oder die Seriennummer) dieser Banknote und ich werde die Daten

hier ver�ffentlichen!


Vorkriegsausgabe der Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Bank, 100 Rupien vom 15.6.1905,

4-stellige KN

ENGLISH: the following German East Africa 100 Rupien 15.6.1905 (Pick-4) (ser.# 7350)

banknote was lost by Deutsche Post in Germany (in January 2002).

Extract ID: 4762

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Extract Author: Lifer
Extract Date: April 16 2002

Response and explanations regarding the Article in the East African News Paper titled "Game Carnage in Tanzania Alarms Kenya".

Posted - April 16 2002 : 20:53:22



The East African Newspaper of 4-10 February 2002 carried an article titled "Game Carnage in Tanzania Alarms Kenya", written by John Mbaria with supplement information from Apolinari Tairo of Dar es Salaam. The article was on The Ortello Business Hunting Company, which started to hunt in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in 1992.

The following are issues raised in the article:

a) Hunting activities carried out in Liliondo Game Controlled Area near the Tanzania / Kenyan border causes loses of 80% of the Kenyan wildlife.

b) Hunting is conducted in the migratory route in the south between Kenya and Serengeti National Park. The animals are hunted during the migratory period as they move to Kenya and on their way back to Tanzania in July to December.

c) Hunting is threatening the Kenyan tourism industry, which earns the country USD 256.0 annually.

d) The Hunting kills animals haphazardly, without proper guidance and monitoring of actual number of animals killed and exported outside the country.

e) Airplanes belonging to Ortello Business Corporation (OBC) carry unspecified type of live animals and birds from Loliondo on their way back to UAE. Further more, the air planes fly directly in and out of Loliondo without stopping at Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA).

The following are responses to the issues raised:

2.0 Conservation of wildlife in Tanzania

Tanzania is among the top ten countries in the world rich in biodiversity. Tanzania is also leading in wildlife conservation in Africa. It has 12 National Parks, including the famous Serengeti National Park, 34 Game Reserves and 38 Game Controlled Areas. The wildlife �protected areas cover 28% of the land surface area of Tanzania. In recognition of the good conservation works, Tanzania was awarded a conservation medal in 1995 by the Safari Club International whose headquarters is in the United States of America.

Tanzania has a number of important endangered animal species in the world. Such animal species are: Black Rhino, Wild Dog, Chimpanzee, Elephant and Crocodile (Slender Snorted Crocodile).

In 1998, the Government of Tanzania adopted a Wildlife Policy, which gives direction on conservation and advocate sustainable use of wildlife resources for the benefit of the present and future generations.

3.0 Tourist Hunting

Regulated tourist Hunting or any other type of Hunting that observes conservation ethics does not negatively affect wild animal populations. This is because Hunting ethics is based on selective Hunting and not random shooting of animals. Hunting was banned in Tanzania from 1972 to 1978. The resultant effect was increased poaching and reduced government revenue from wildlife conservation. Low revenue caused low budgetary allocations to wildlife conservation activities and the lack of working gear and equipment. When the tourist Hunting resumed Elephant population increased from 44,000 (in 1989) to 45,000 (in 1994). Elephant is a keystone species in the Hunting industry and is a good indicator in showing population status of other animal species in their habitat.

In 1989 to 1993 the government revenue from the Hunting industry increased from USD 2,422,500.00 to USD 7,377,430.00. The government earned a total of USD 9.3 Million from tourist Hunting in the year 2002. Increased revenue and keystone species such as Elephant are the results of efficient implementation of good plans and policies in conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources.

4.0 Response to the issues raised in the article

4.1 Hunting against the law by OBC

OBC is one of the 40 Hunting companies operating in Tanzania. The Company belongs to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Different from other Hunting companies, OBC does not conduct tourist Hunting business. The Kingdom of UAE has been the client Hunting in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area since 1992.

In conducting Hunting in Loliondo Game Controlled Area, the Company adhere to the law and regulations governing the tourist Hunting industry, namely:

4.1.1 Payment of concession fee amounting to USD 7,500.00 per Hunting block per year.

4.1.2 Requesting for a Hunting quota from the Director of Wildlife, before issuance of Hunting permit.

4.1.3 Payment of game fees as stipulated by the Government.

4.1.4 Hunting only those animals shown in the Hunting permit.

4.1.5 Contributing to the development of the Hunting block, local communities� development projects and anti-poaching activities.

The following is what OBC has done so far:

� Contribution towards the development of the Ngorongoro District of USD 46,000.00

� Construction of Waso Primary and Secondary Schools, six bore holes and cattle dips and has purchased two buses to enhance/local transportation. Furthermore, OBC contributed TSh. 30.0M to six villages in the Hunting area, for providing secondary school education to 21 children.

� Purchased a generator and water pump worth TSh. 11.0M for provision of water to six villages. It has also constructed all weather roads and an airstrip within Loliondo area.

4.1.6. Different from the rest of the Hunting companies OBC Hunting period is very short. Normally the Hunting season lasts for six months, but OBC hunts for a maximum of four months. Few animals are shot from the Hunting permit.

4.2 Animals hunted in migratory routes.

The Government of Tanzania has permitted Hunting in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area and not in the migratory route between Masai Mara and Serengeti National Park. The Loliondo Game Controlled Area is a plain bordering the Serengeti National Park to the east.

4.3 The right for Tanzania to use wildlife in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area

The wildlife found in Tanzania is the property of the Government of Tanzania. The notion that these animals belong to Kenya is not correct. The wild animals in Loliondo Game Controlled Area do not have dual citizenship . Since some animal species move back and forth between Tanzania and Kenya it is better understood that these animals would be recognised to belong to either party during the time they are in that particular country. Animals in Masai Mara, Serengeti, Loliondo and Ngorongoro belong to one ecosystem namely, Serengeti ecosystem. However, Tanzania being a sovereign State with her own policies has the right by law to implement them. The same applies to Kenya, which has the right to implement its no-Hunting policy basing on the administration of her laws. Tanzania has therefore, not done anything wrong to undertake Hunting on her territory.

4.4 Hunting is threatening Kenyan tourism

Migratory animals move into Kenya during the rainy season. After the rainy season they move back to Tanzania. Animals that are hunted in Liliondo Game Controlled Area during this time of the year are very few. In the year 2000, only 150 animals were hunted, and in the year 2001 only 139 animals were hunted. It is therefore, not true that 80% of the animals in the border area were hunted. Based on this argument, it is also not true that Hunting conducted by OBC is threatening the Kenyan tourism industry. Tanzania does not allow Hunting of elephants 10 kilometres from the Tanzania/Kenya international boundary. (CITES meeting held at the Secretariat Offices in Geneva in 1993). This is an example of the measures taken to control what was erroneously referred to by the East African Paper as �haphazard Hunting of animals of Kenya�.

Furthermore, it is not true that the Wildlife Division does not know the number of animals that are killed. Control of Hunting is done by the Wildlife Division, District Council and other Law Enforcement agencies. The OBC does not capture and export live animals since it does not possess valid licence to do so.

4.5 OBC airplances export assorted number of live animals from Loliondo to UAE

Capture and export of live animals and birds is conducted in accordance with the Wildlife Conservation Act No. 12 of 1974 and resolutions of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The live animal trade is also conducted in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations, with regard to the size of the boxes/containers allowed to transport specific animal species in order to avoid injuries or death of the same. The principle behind the live animal trade is sustainability. CITES may prohibit exportation of animals whose trade is not sustainable. On these grounds it is obvious that CITES and therefore, its 150 members recognise that the Tanzanian live animal trade is sustainable.

Live animal traders who exports animals, birds and other live specimens are obliged to adhere to the following procedure:

i) Must hold valid licence to trade on live animals.

ii) Must hold a capture permit and thereafter an ownership permit./certificate. The number of animals possessed and the number of animals listed on the ownership permit must be consistent with the number of animals that were listed in the capture permit and actually captured and certified.

iii) Must obtain an export permit for animals listed on the ownership permit/certificate.

iv) The Officer at the point of exit must certify that the animals exported are those listed on the certificate of export. The number of animals to be exported must tally with the number listed on the certificate of export.

Verification of exported animals is conducted in collaboration with the police and customs officials.

v) The plane that will carry live animals is inspected by the Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro Handling Companies� Officials.

vi) For animals listed under CITES, appropriate export and import certificates are used to export the said specimens. If there is any anomaly in exporting CITES species, the importing country notifies CITES Secretariat, which in turn notifies the exporting country, and the animals in question are immediately returned to the country of export.

4.6 Other specific isues

4.6.1 Hunters are given blank permits

Companies are issued Hunting quotas before they commence Hunting activities. Each hunter is given a permit, which shows the animals that he/she is allowed to hunt depending on the quota issued and the type of safari. There are four types of safari Hunting as follows: 7, 14, 16 and 21 days safari. Each Hunting safari indicates species and numbers of animals to be hunted. When an animal is killed or wounded the officer in-charge overseeing Hunting activities signs to certify that the respective animal has been killed. If the animal has been wounded, the animal is tracked down and killed to ensure that no other animal is killed to replace the wounded animal at large. This procedure is a measure of monitoring of animals killed by hunters.

4.6.2 Good Neighbourhood Meetings between Tanzania and Kenya

There are three platforms on which Tanzania and Kenya meet to discuss conservation issues as follows:

a) The Environment and Tourism Committee of the EAC.

b) The Lusaka Agreement. In the Lusaka Agreement Meeting conservation and anti-poaching matters amongst member countries are discussed. The HQ of the Lusaka Agreement is in Nairobi.

c) Neighbourhood meeting. Experts in the contiguous conservation areas meet to discuss areas of cooperation between them, for example, in joint anti-poaching operations. Based on the regulations that govern the Hunting industry animals are not threatened by extinction since the animals that are hunted are old males for the purpose of obtaining good trophies. Trophies are attractions in this Hunting business. It is on this basis that tourist Hunting is not discussed in the said meetings, because is not an issue for both countries.

4.6.3 OBC airplanes flies directly to and from Loliondo without passing through KIA

The Tanzania Air Traffic Law requires that all airplanes land at KIA before they depart to protected areas. When the airplanes are at KIA and DIA the respective authorities conduct their duties according. The same applies when airplanes fly to UAE. They are required to land at KIA in order to go through immigration and customs checks. The allegation that OBC airplane does not land in KIA is therefore false. Furthermore, Tanzania Air Traffic Control regulates all airplanes includingly, OBC airplane at entry points.

4.6.4 OBC sprays salt in some parts of the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in order to attract animals from Serengeti National Park.

These allegations are baseless since the Tourist Hunting Regulations (2000) prohibit distribution of water and salt at the Hunting site in order to attract animals for Hunting. Besides the Game Scouts who supervise Hunting had never reported this episode. Furthermore, there are no reports that OBC is responsible for wild fires that gutters the south of the Serengeti National Park.

4.6.5 Cancellation of OBC block permit in 1999 since it was involved in the exportation of live animals.

This allegation is not true. The truth is that Hunting blocks are allocated to Hunting companies after every five years. The allocation that was done in 1995 expired in 1999. The next allocation was done in year 2000 and the companies will use the allocated blocks until 2004.

4.6.6 The UAE Royal Family contributions to the Wildlife Division

This is true. The Wildlife Division had received support from the UAE including: vehicles, transceivers and field gear in 1996. This was part of the fulfilment of the obligation by all Hunting companies to contribute towards conservation and anti-poaching activities.


Records in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism show that there is no other District in Tanzania with Hunting area, other than Ngorongoro District, that receives enormous funds from Hunting business for community development. OBC contributes up to TSh. 354,967,000.00 annually for community development in Loliondo.

The Government of Tanzania has no reasons to stop the Hunting activities in Loliondo Game Controlled Area. The government sees that local communities and the Ngorongoro District Council benefit from the Hunting industry.

Edited by - lifer on 04/16/2002 20:57:41

Extract ID: 3793

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Extract Author: PST Correspondent, Arusha
Extract Date: January 24, 2003

Clashes leave several injured

Several people have been seriously injured following clashes between Masai and Rangi tribes over land at Katikati Village, Kiteto District in Manyara region.

The Arusha Regional Police Commander, James Kombe, said yesterday that the incident occurred on Wednesday when a group of Rangi tribesmen from Isolwa Village in Kondoa district, Dodoma Region armed with clubs, machetes and other traditional weapons attacked four households of the Masai and burned their houses.

The affected Masai cried for help from their colleagues who gathered together within no time clashes ensued that left several people injured.

Police from Kiteto heard about the clashes and rushed to scene to bring the situation to normal.

Kombe said the Masai wanted to use the area for grazing their animals whereas the Rangi want it for crop cultivation, hence the fight.

He said the loss resulting from the burnt out households was estimated to be 4.9m/- and police are holding four persons in connection with the incident.

As a result of the incident, district commissioners of Kiteto and Kondoa would meet to discuss the situation with residents of the area in order to get a solution.

It is the second time that clashes have erupted between pastoralists and farmers in the area. Two years ago, two people were killed in similar clashes.

Extract ID: 3903

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Extract Author: Ryszard Antolak
Extract Date: Jan 28, 2003


Last February, while on holiday to East Africa, my wife and I happened to be passing through the the beautiful city of Arusha in Tanzania which, at that time of the year, was awash with bright flowers. I suddenly remembered the stories my mother and grandmother had told me about the Polish resettlement camp at Tengeru, where they had spent several years. It was somewhere near Arusha.

I asked our Tanzanian driver whether he knew anything about a place called Tengeru, or about any Polish camp. Yes indeed, he answered. There was a small district outside Arusha called Tengeru. He would be able to take us there. But knowing nothing about a Polish camp, he stopped at a local police-station to enquire for us. The friendly Tanzanian policeman was very helpful. He knew all about the Polish camp; gave us directions and phoned ahead to prepare for our arrival. The old site of the Polish camp, we learned, now lay within the grounds of a large argricultural college. We needed special permission to enter it.

Turning in from the busy road, we drove down a beautifully tree-lined road in the shadow of Mount Kilimanjaro. The road was narrow and uneven, causing the landrover to bounce up and down. Bananas grew all around us in rich abundance.

Half-way down the lane, a tall elderly Tanzanian in a torn jacket and strange fur-lined hat stood waiting for us. He was to be our guide for the last mile-or-so of our journey. He spoke no English, but told us through our interpreter (the driver) that he could remember the time when the Poles were here in the 1940s.

Finally, we came to halt. The old man took my hand, led me out of the landrover, and pointed into the distance with a long bony finger. Before us was a white circular wall with a metal gate. Three Tanzanian women stood before it with bunches of keys. They welcomed us, unlocked the gates, and we were able to enter.

It was a large cemetery: all that remained of the Polish compound. Near the entrance, a simple stone monument told (in Polish, English and Swahili) that these were the graves of Poles who had died in exile. There were two-or-three hundred headstones within the walls, each one clean and bleached white in the hot African sun. A scattering of broad trees here and there gave some welcome shade.

I walked among the headstones, reading the Polish names and the dates, looking at the Roman and Orthodox crosses, (as well as the few Stars of David) carved clearly upon them. The most recent dated from 1963! All of the stones were beautifully clean. Only a few strands of dried yellow grass grew, here and there, among them. I couldn't discover who tended these graves, but they had been lovingly looked after.

It was a very emotional experience. So many Polish names! So many who had died on foreign African soil without being able to return home! My eyes began to fill with tears. The old man, who all this time had been standing respectively at the gates, came towards me. He, too, had tears in his eyes. He embraced me tightly. He told me that he remembered the Polish inhabitants of the camp with affection. Many times he had gone there with his mother to sell bananas.

"Does anyone ever come here to visit?" I asked him.

"No", he explained through our 'interpreter'. Although we learned that a film crew from Poland had arrived several months earlier to shoot footage for a documentary. Apart from that, no-one came.

"And who looks after the graves?" I enquired.

The old man did not understand, but smiled, showing the gaps in his teeth. He embraced me again. I thanked him warmly and pressed a few dollars into his hand. He smiled, nodded his head. and disappeared.

We took a few photographs and then returned slowly to the landrover, meditating on this often-forgotten episode of buried Polish history. Even surrounded by the lush vegetation and fertile red soil of this part of Tanzania, it was a sad and lonely place.

Ryszard Antolak

Extract ID: 3800

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Extract Author: Dr Brendan Whyte
Extract Date: 2004

Review of book about Keith Johnston

Undaunted by this [Paraguayan] misadventure, in 1878 Keith managed to secure the leadership of what would be the last R.G.S.-sponsored African expedition, an attempt to discover a viable route for a road from the East African coast inland to the great African lakes. Captain James Frederick Elton, the vice-consul at Zanzibar from 1873, had set out on a similar mission, but had died on the return leg of his expedition to Lake Nyasa in 1877. Keith was to be accompanied by the 21-year-old Joseph Thompson, but the two did not get on, Keith's quiet scientific intelligence exasperated by his companion's gung-ho attitude.

After spending time in Aden, and then several months in Zanzibar outfitting the expedition, Keith and Thompson set off from Dar Es Salaam on 19 May 1879. On 28 June, only 40 days later, and less than 150 km from Dar Es Salaam, Keith was dead from dysentery, leaving the 150-man expedition in the hands of the bewildered 21-year-old Thompson. Thompson, subsequently the first European to traverse Masailand, went on to become an African explorer to rank with Livingstone and Stanley, even though he also died young, at 37. Keith Johnston meanwhile has been almost forgotten.

Extract ID: 5545

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Extract Author: Dr Brendan Whyte
Extract Date: 2004

Review of book about Keith Johnston

Particularly fascinating is the information on the motivations (and pay rates) of expedition porters, the description of squalid Zanzibar (Livingstone referred to it as 'Stinkibar'), and the contrasts between the various other African explorers of this time, particularly Burton, Livingstone and the alternately feted and hated Stanley: "Damn public opinion--the fellow has done no geography!" (p.64 quoting Markham, Secretary of the R.G.S.). A couple of appendices add further life to the story of the expedition, giving the number and prices of the instruments carried, and a detailed list, again with prices, of Thompson's personal equipment, which included 3 pairs of pyjamas, 6 merino vests, 6 towels and 12 handkerchiefs! A typical entry from Keith's expedition diary is also given, showing his meticulous approach to the need for scientific data and measurement: he notes changes in direction of the 150-man expedition as often as every five minutes!

The book is illustrated with extracts from a few period maps of Africa and East Africa, along with a number of photographs, many taken by the author [James McCarthy] during his days as a surveyor in Tanzania in the 1960s or during his 2001 attempt to locate Keith's grave near Mt Hatambula. There are even some photographs taken by Keith Johnston himself in Africa.

Extract ID: 5546

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Extract Author: Andrew Leigh
Extract Date: March 05, 2004

No Sean Penn: John Rhys-Davies, without Oscar censors.

Rhys-Davies used to be a radical leftist, as a university student in the '60s. He first started to come around when he went to the local hall to hear a young local member of parliament by the name of Margaret Thatcher. "I went to heckle her," Rhys-Davies says. "She shot down the first two hecklers in such brilliant fashion that I decided I ought for once to shut up and listen."

It was the beginning of his eventual transformation into a conservative. Rhys-Davies's father was a colonial officer, but from a poor "working-class socialist" background, which Rhys-Davies absorbed into his bloodstream. He spent a large portion of his childhood in Tanzania, where his father was posted.

He says, "As a child, my father showed me a dhow in the harbor at Dar es Salaam and said, 'You see that dhow? Twice a year it comes down from Aden filled with boxes of goods. On the way back up it's got two or three black boys on it. Those boys are slaves. And the U.N. won't let me do a thing about it.'"

Rhys-Davies says that his father predicted our current state of affairs, once telling his son, "The next world war will be between Islam and the West. And it will happen in your lifetime."

Extract ID: 5112

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Extract Author: The Very Revd Jerry Kramer
Extract Date: 15 April 04

A Letter from Africa

4-17-04 - A Letter from Africa

(Lifted directly from Kendall's blog

April 15, 2004

The Most Rev. Frank T. Griswold

Presiding Bishop and Primate

The Episcopal Church

815 Second Avenue

New York, NY 10017-4503


Your Grace,

Easter greetings in the name of our Lord and Saviour Christ Jesus. Stacy and I thank you for your kind letter of April 1, 2004 offering to appoint us as Volunteers for Mission of the Episcopal Church here in Tanzania.

While we are Episcopalians in good standing in the Diocese of Texas, and very much love and respect our dear Bishop Don Wimberly, we cannot accept your offer at this time. When first arriving in Tanzania, we were told in no uncertain terms that we would be asked to leave had we come here affiliated in any way with The Episcopal Church Center. Neither can we represent the ECUSA, in conscience, having denied the truth of scripture and the Church�s traditional beliefs on issues of human sexuality. We categorically reject the consecration of Gene Robinson as an act that is not of God and whose Office we will never recognize.

Our ministry here has been hampered from day one by deep suspicions directed at any one coming in the name "Episcopalian." We can tell you first hand that African Christians feel utterly and brutally betrayed by the Church in America. The consecration of Gene Robinson has caused enormous harm here and emboldened persecution and violence against the Christian Community.

We love you as a Christian brother and pray for you daily. Please do not take this response as an act of malice in any way; we harbour none against you or anyone else who shares a differing opinion on this issue. Our ministry here in Tanzania simply cannot be credible, nor would it be accepted, if affiliated publicly with the ECUSA. In fact it would put us at greater jeopardy than we are at present. Nor can we represent the ECUSA officially because of its sinful actions that are tearing the bonds of our Global Communion. Please keep us in your prayers and be assured of ours.

Sincerely in the Risen Christ,

The Very Revd Jerry Kramer


Christ Church Cathedral, Arusha

cc: The Rt. Rev. Don Wimberly, Bishop of Texas

The Rt. Rev. Charles E. Jenkins, Bishop of Louisiana

Extract ID: 4720

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Extract Date: 31 July 2004

Bob Tisdall - Ireland's Greatest Sporting Legend

City of Derry Athletics Club

[Picture: Bob Tisdall (253) Wins from "Slats" Hardin (430) of the United States]

Bob Tisdall died on Wednesday [July 28] at his home in Australia.

Malcolm McCausland recalls recalls the amazing story of the man who won gold at the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles almost exactly 72 years ago.

When Bob Tisdall crossed the finish line in the 400 metres hurdles at the Olympics in Los Angeles almost exactly 72 years ago (1 August 1932) he became only the second man to strike gold in the green of Ireland. It also capped an amazing chapter in the life of one of the country�s greatest and most remarkable athletes.

Tisdall�s victory came as a major surprise - he had only run the 400 metres hurdles three times before arriving in Los Angeles - and he was denied a world record of 51.7 seconds only because he knocked down the final hurdle. Later because of the incident the rules were changed and a few years ago the President of the International Olympic Committee Juan Samaranch presented him with a Waterford Crystal rose bowl with an image showing him knocking over a hurdle.

Robert Morton Newburgh Tisdall was born on the 16 May 1907 in Ceylon, now Sri Lanka. Although born to an Anglo-Irish family Bob, as he was always known, was 100% per cent Irish in his breeding. His father was an All-Ireland sprint champion while his mother was an Irish hockey international and by all accounts a formidable golfer.

Inspired by the acrobats on a visit to circus as a young boy, he developed an interest in physical culture that was to last all his life. For weeks afterwards he spent all his free time doing cartwheels, walking on his hands and using the branches of a tree as a trapeze.

It was in prep school at Mourne Grange, standing in the shadow of Slieve Donard, that he first found a gym which enabled him to develop the skill, balance and poise that was eventually to take him to the winner�s podium in Los Angeles.

After Mourne Grange he went to public school at Shrewsbury where at the age of 14 the fascination for hurdling had already gripped him. After leaving school he went to work in an office in London but after only ten months of city life an x-ray showed he had deposits of soot in his lungs. He was advised to live in the country and it was only then that a university career was considered. But he had no formal qualifications from Shrewsbury which would have gained him entrance and was refused a sports scholarship at Oxford. He worked hard for and passed the entrance exam to Cambridge in 1928.

A very successful athletics career followed and in his final year, 1931, Tisdall was elected CUAC president charged with the responsibility of selecting the team for the annual match against Oxford. He played a captain�s part winning four of the eight individual events � a feat only equalled 60 years later. He could have won a fifth, his strongest event the 220 yards hurdles, but showing his measure as a man he stood down so that a friend would have the opportunity of winning a full-blue.

Early in 1932 he wrote an impassioned letter to the President of the Irish Olympic Council, General Eoin O�Duffy, asking him to be considered to represent Ireland at the Olympics later that year. O�Duffy was so taken by the tone of the letter, he immediately invited the Nenagh man over to run in Ireland�s Olympic Trials at Croke Park. To pursue his Olympic dream, Bob promptly left his job and moved with his wife to Sussex where he lived in a disused railway carriage in an orchard and trained by running around the rows of trees.

Tisdall failed to make qualifying time at the trial but was given another chance by O�Duffy at the Irish Championships, also at Croke Park. This time, he made no mistake winning in a national record of 54.2 seconds, well inside the 55.0 seconds standard. After two weeks at the Irish Olympic training camp at Ballybunion, Co. Kerry, he faced the tortuous 14 day journey to California.

According to contemporary accounts the temperatures crossing the deserts of Nebraska and Colorado had registered in excess of 118�F (53�C). Tisdall whose normal racing weight was 11st 11lb (75kg) lost seven pounds (3.5kg). He had also slept badly during the 14 day journey and was anxious on account of having only raced over the 400 metres hurdles three times previously in his lifetime. In Los Angeles he lost another three pounds and amazed everyone by spending 15 out of every 24 hours in bed. Even more surprisingly, he never put on a running shoe or ran a yard!

Three days before the heats he tried a jog but discovered that the foot injury sustained twelve months previously had recurred on him. Had the Games been held today he would probably have withdrawn but in a less sophisticated era he merely attributed his symptoms to nerves.

Nevertheless, Tisdall opened his account in Los Angeles by winning his preliminary round heat in 54.8 seconds before leading home the competitors in the second semi-final in 52.8 seconds, 1.4 seconds faster than his personal best.

Drawn in lane three, Tisdall seemed to enjoy a narrow advantage over his five rivals in the early part of the final and was well ahead when the field entered the home straight. He was still comfortably clear coming down the home straight but in the dash to the line he brought down the final hurdle making him stumble for five or six strides and allowed the American Hardin to get within a yard of him at the tape.

Tisdall�s time of 51.7 seconds would have been a world record but under the rules at the time was disallowed because of Tisdall bringing down the final hurdle. The Tipperary man did not any waste time celebrating but immediately made for the throwing area. There he encouraged his friend and team mate Dr Pat O�Callaghan who had trailed Finn Ville Porhola for five rounds in the hammer to win a second Irish gold with his last throw of the competition. It completed Ireland�s greatest ever hour in the Olympic Arena winning two gold medals in only the country�s second Olympiad.

Later Bob lived in South Africa, where he ran a gymnasium which he converted to a nightclub in the evening. He moved to Tanzania and grew coffee before raising cattle in Australia. He claimed to have run his last race at the age of 80 and took part in the Sydney Olympics torch relay. He was present in Nenagh in 2002 when a statue was unveiled in memory of him and the town�s two other Olympic champions, John Hayes and Matty McGrath. Last year, he was involved in a serious accident in which he ruptured his spleen as well as breaking his shoulder blade and several ribs after he falling down a steep set of rock stairs. But within a short time he was back on his feet - only minor setback for a man who conquered the world all those years ago.

Extract ID: 4874

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Extract Date: 31 July 2004

British schoolchildren robbed at gunpoint

A PARTY of sixth-formers has been robbed at gunpoint while on a trip to Tanzania, it emerged today.

The nine pupils, from Wheatley Park School in Oxford, had passports, cash and valuables taken by a group of six men on motorcycles who held up a bus travelling in the Arusha National Park. None of the teenagers were hurt during the incident.

They were accompanied by a teacher from the school and a representative from World Challenge, a company which organises expeditions for schools.

The Foreign Office tells travellers heading for Tanzania that "armed crime is increasing" and warns of "isolated but serious attacks involving expatriates and visitors".

John Mitchell, education spokesman for Oxfordshire County Council, today said: "Oxfordshire County Council has confidence that all its schools make judgements about trips abroad with great care.

Fortunately, incidents such as this are extremely rare and, fortunately, nobody was hurt."

The robbery took place on July 31 between the towns of Moshi and Arusha, near Mount Meru, a 15,000ft peak near Mount Kilimanjaro which the party was intending to climb.

The trip was organised by London-based World Challenge, which was behind just under 300 expeditions for around 3000 students from schools across the UK this summer.

Extract ID: 4727

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Extract Date: August 01, 2004

Bob Tisdall dies

The Blog of Death

Robert Morton Newburgh Tisdall, the world's oldest track and field Olympic gold medalist, died in his sleep this week. The exact date of his death was not released. He was 97.

Born in Ceylon to an Anglo-Irish family, Tisdall was a natural athlete who set South African, Canadian and Greek records in the hurdles. While studying at Cambridge University, he wrote an impassioned letter to Gen. Eoin O'Duffy, the president of the Irish Olympic Council, to request an audition for the Irish Olympic Team. His try-out was granted.

Tisdall's first run failed to impress, but during his second attempt, he ran the 400m hurdles in 54.2 seconds and qualified for the 1932 Olympics. He prepared for the competition by leaping over sheep grazing in England's South Downs.

At the Los Angeles Games, Tisdall won the 400m hurdles race in 51.7 seconds and became the second Irishman in history to win a gold medal for his country. He actually broke the world record time in the event, but his accomplishment was not recorded because he knocked over the last hurdle before crossing the finish line. Tisdall also came in eighth place in the decathlon. After his victory, he attended a celebratory dinner and shared a table with pilot Amelia Earhart and actor Douglas Fairbanks Jr.

His remaining years were spent growing coffee in Tanzania and raising cattle in Australia. Tisdall also ran a gymnasium in South Africa, which he converted into a nightclub in the evenings. He was 93 years old when he ran in the 2000 Olympic torch relay in Sydney.

Posted on August 1, 2004 05:09 AM

Extract ID: 4873

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Extract Author: Weeshie Fogary
Extract Date: 3 August 2004

Weeshie's Week

Terrace Talk Ireland: An archive of articles written by Terrace Talk Presenter Weeshie Fogary. Each week these articles appear in the Kingdom Newspaper.

The death at his home in Australia last Wednesday July 28th of Bob Tisdall in his 96th year may have gone unnoticed by most sports followers, however we must record that his passing has brought to an end one of the most triumphant and extraordinary eras of Irish sporting success.

A member of the four man Irish Olympic team which competed in Los Angeles in 1932 Bob had the unique record of winning a gold medal in the 400 metres hurdles in a world and Olympic record time of 51.67 seconds, however due to the strange rules in operation at that time he was not credited with those record times as he had knocked the last hurdle on his surge to the tape and into history's pages.

Those August games of "32 in the Los Angeles Coliseum witnessed what was probably the most memorable achievements ever of any group of Irish athletes and a Kerryman was right there in the midst of it all, Dr. Pat O'Callaghan the man from Kanturk won gold in the hammer event and of course our own Eamon Fitzgerald of whom you have compressively read about in this column came fourth in the triple jump, Eamom was also the holder of two senior All Ireland football medals with Kerry.

The final and in my opinion sadly forgotten member of that 1932 team was Michael "Sonny" Murphy from Kinaboy Co Clare who participated in the steeplechase, however the searing Los Angeles heat got the better of the brave Clareman and he collapsed due to heatstroke, he never really recovered from that terrible experience.

Four years later on St. Patrick's day 1936 "Sonny" Murphy died tragically as a very young man, he was buried in Deansgrange cemetery in Dublin where our own Olympian Eamon Fitzgerald is also laid to rest, Clare women Della Maddock re discovered "Sonny's" grave a few years ago, "there wasn't a stick or a stone marking it, it was a disgrace" she said.

And so on Easter Sunday five years ago the final member of that greatest ever Irish Olympic team was ultimately remembered when a headstone was erected at "Sonnys" grave, in attendance were Olympians Ronnie Delaney, Freid Tiedt, Eamon Coughlen, Brendan o Reilly, Harry Perry and many more friends and relations.

Bob Tisdall had an amazing career, in 1931 he became a national figure in England when he won four events in the annual Cambridge- Oxford athletics match, the hurdles, long jump, shot and 440 yards. Amazingly he had to be given two chances to qualify for the Olympics and he wrote a letter himself to General Eoin O'Duffy the man responsible at the time for entries, imploring him to see him in action. Tisdall failed to achieve the qualifying time in the first trial in Croke Park, O Duffy gave him a second chance and Tisdall qualified as he won the National 440 yards hurdles title at the Irish Championship again in Croke Park. The rest is history.

Then last September with the help of the Irish Olympic Council and Sean Hurley of Radio Kerry I interview by phone Bob Tisdall from his home in Queensland, Australia, he was about to celebrate his 96th birthday, and my interview with him was in conjunction with my Terrace Talk programme on Eamon Fitzgerald. He was then the oldest living Olympic Gold medal winner, in all probility and I believe I would correct, this was the very last radio interview given by the great man.

So for the sporting records hereunder is the transcript what is now a historic very brief glimpse of what life was like for one of Irelands greatest sons.

Q; Is it long since you were back in Ireland

A; O yes, away back in 1984, I was on my way to the Olympics and I stopped off in Ireland.

Q; Your memories of the 1932 Olympics in Los Angles.

A; O yes, vivid memories, those things you never forget, we had a wonderful time really, it was the first time they built a village for the athletes, Pat o Callaghan and I shared a hut. Douglas Fairbanks he was a big shot in Hollywood came and had a chat with us.

Q; What were your memories of winning your gold medal.

A; I did write about it one time, and the more I talk about it the more I forget it.

Q; There were just four athletes on that Irish team which included Eamon.

A; Eamon was older than what we were as far as I can remember, a tall lanky fellow, very good company, I wouldn't say he was jovial but he had a since of humour, he wouldn't go out of his way to make you laugh, he got injured on his way out, that's right.

Q; And Dr. Pat O'Callaghan won his second gold medal.

A; Yes, it was a great moment for Irish sport, Pat o Callaghan and \I were competing at the same time, he was throwing the hammer when I was running on the track, when I had won my gold medal I went straight across to see Pat competing, I don?t know if you have heard this story. I asked how was he doing and he replied, ? I can?t get in the revolutions in the circle with the hammer because the spikes on my shoes are too long, I just got a file from someone, would you help me file down my spikes.? So from the finish of my race I sat there filing down Pat's spikes, everyone was wondering what was going on, it was really amusing and he got up and won the gold medal.

Q; Your memories of Eamon, did you know that he had won All Ireland football medals with Kerry.

A; I'm not certain about that, no.

Q; Were you aware that he was a Kerry man.

A; O yes.

Q; Have you any friends in Kerry.

A; No, it's too long ago. I've lost touch with everyone, but I do remember the great Casey brothers of Sneem, all dead now I think, I?ve got a cousin down in Bantry, he lives in Glengarriffe, I write to him occasionally and sadly that?s the only contact I have with Ireland now.

Q; Did winning gold medal change your life in anyway.

A; No, it didn't actually.

Q; How do you like living in Australia.

A; It's a lovely country I've got a nice place here, I used to grow ginger but the market collapsed so I?m just living here retired on a pension now., I do a lot of gardening, I grow all the family veg. It helps to keep me fit.

Q; Do you me asking what age you are now. (This was Oct. 03.)

A; I'll be 96 on Friday.

Q; Do you think the likes of Eamon Fitzgerald is forgotten Bob.

A; No he hasn?t. It?s along way back and you can't expect everyone to remember him

Q; What does it mean to represent your country in the Olympics.

A; Terrific, your country is your team, and the team spirit there is colossal of course, the Olympic games will always be like that and they bring the world together.

Q; What would you say to the people of Kerry that are listening to this programme about Eamon Fitzgerald, how should he be remembered.

A; Well I can only say he was one of the nicest people I have met and sorry I didn?t know more about him but it's so long ago.

Q; How many in family have you.

A: I've got two sons and a daughter and another daughter in Africa from my first marriage, and I have three grand daughters, there?s 40 years between the youngest and oldest.

Q; What county did you come from.

A; My family has been in Ireland for over 400 years, Bantry my father came from and I was born in Ceylon, I was brought up in Ireland and had my first job when I was 19 running a passenger boat on the Shannon.

Q; Have you any idea how many Irish titles you won.

A; I ran in the Irish Championships once and won the hurdles.

Q; What happened after Los Angles, did your career go on for long more.

A; O yes, I moved to South Africa and was president of the Athletic Association there and in Johnsonburg I organised four different teams along the gold reef and every other we had a championship, I ran a lot myself and took part in four events a day.

W; Thank you Bob for talking to us here in Ireland.

B; Thank you for remembering me and God bless you.

Bob Tisdalls passing marks the end of one of the most remarkable era?s in Irish sport and sadly now all that magnificent four man Olympic Irish team of 1932 are gone to their eternal reward.

Extract ID: 4876

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Extract Author: Finbarr Slattery
Extract Date: August 12, 2004

The great Bob Tisdall blazed a captivating trail

The Kingdom (Killarney, Ireland)

ONLY three Irish persons have won gold medals in track and field events in the Olympic Games - Bob Tisdall, Pat O�Callaghan and Ronnie Delaney. Of those three, the one who fascinated me most was Bob Tisdall because I was ignorant of his feats as an athlete.

I had to wait to read his obituaries in the papers, following his recent death in Brisbane, Australia, at the age of 97, to find out what sort of person Bob Tisdall really was.

His ability at athletics secured him gold in the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. One thing I learned straight away was that he defied all logic to secure his gold medal - he had that extra special something that enabled him to get that all too elusive prize.

It is well worth recalling in detail how he got to LA in the first instance and here is how he made it:

Robert Morton Newburgh Tisdall was born in Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, in 1907, to parents intensely proud of their Irish origins. His father, William, hailed from Bantry and his mother, Meta Morton, grew up in Nenagh. Appropriately, it was in Nenagh, and later Dromineer, that the young Robert spent his formative years.

Not until he arrived at Cambridge University did he have the opportunity of indulging his passion for sport, and college records show that in the annual �colours� match with Oxford in 1931 he won four events, the 440 yards, 120 yards hurdles, shot-putt and long jump competitions.

The winning figures in each instance were, however, far from inspiring. And outside intervarsity sport he remained largely unknown here until early 1932 when he wrote to General Eoin O�Duffy, president of the Irish Olympic Council, requesting that he be selected for the Irish team going to the Los Angeles Games.

O�Duffy later recalled that he was both astounded and impressed by the �cheek� of the young graduate, more so since Tisdall indicated that he wished to compete in the 400 metres hurdles, an event in which, on his own admission, he had competed just once.

O�Duffy responded by inviting him to participate in a trial race in Dublin and Tisdall�s reaction to that show of faith was no less brave. Although recently married, he promptly resigned his job in London and took himself off to an orchard in Sussex where, in a disused railway carriage, he worked on honing his body for the biggest test of his career.

Without even the semblance of a track, he trained on home-made hurdles. O�Duffy decreed that he would have to run the trial in Croke Park in 55 seconds or less, the time recorded by the American Johnny Gibson in the Tailteann Games at the same venue four years earlier, and arranged for Andy Nolan, a member of the Garda club, to run against him.

The best Tisdall could do on the day was 56.2 seconds, and he left the stadium deeply disillusioned. But O�Duffy�s admiration for the sheer effrontery of the man persisted, and he arranged for another trial to be held in conjunction with the Irish championships.

Tisdall once more retired to his railway carriage, and his efforts paid off. With Nolan again in opposition, he raced around Croke Park in 54.2 seconds, and suddenly Los Angeles beckoned. He set off with the Irish team on July 3 for the 14-day land and sea journey to California, arriving at the Olympic village in the Baldwin Hills overlooking Los Angeles in a state of nearexhaustion.

The remaining 14 days of his preparation for the Olympic Games were odd - and distinctly worrying for General O�Duffy.

He spent most of his time in bed and, when he was not sleeping or resting in his room, he was invariably stretched out in the sun.

Now, when the die was cast in earnest and he had to perform, he mesmerised them all winning his first heat in 54.8 seconds and two hours later won the second semi-final in 52.8 seconds. In the final Bob Tisdall rose to the first of the 10 hurdles in the lead and was never headed. He was so far ahead jumping the last that he couldn�t believe what was happening.

�I experienced a strange sense of loneliness� he recorded afterwards, �I began to wonder if the others had fallen over�.

This probably caused a lapse in his concentration and caused Tisdall to knock the last hurdle and miss out on a record - at that time knocking a hurdle precluded him from claiming a world record.

He had done enough to join the immortality stakes and, now 70 years later, we are basking in his glory. Thanks Bob Tisdall for blazing a trail that still captivates us all.

Extract ID: 4875

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Extract Author: Professor Adam Jones, Leipzig University
Extract Date: 2006

Collecting and preserving the records of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania in Moshi, Tanzania

2006 award - major research project

�27,500 for 12 months

Following the creation of the German protectorate in 1885, German missionary societies established themselves in different parts of Tanzania. The Leipzig Mission founded its first station on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in 1893. By 1939 half of the (predominantly peasant) Chagga population had been converted; today most people are Christians. Although German rule ended in 1919, German missionaries returned in 1926, including a leading figure in German anthropology and mission history - Bruno Gutmann (1876-1966). In 1963 the mission church became the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania in Northern Tanganyika [later: Tanzania], consisting of 5 dioceses: Northern, Pare, Arusha, Meru and Central.

The Archive

The archive of this church in the small town of Moshi in the centre of the Northern Diocese houses records which extend back to 1895. Some are in English, others in German or Swahili. Most researchers studying the history or anthropology of northeastern Tanzania visit this archive, although the conditions for research are far from ideal. There are plans for the archive to be extended. The material in Moshi suffers from poor shelving, changing temperature and humidity, a complete lack of boxes, in a few cases termites and silverfish, and above all dust. Some papers are in the process of becoming very brittle because of the influence of light. Those held at other former mission stations are in a similar state. Nevertheless, most of the material is still suitable for copying.

The material, produced by missionaries and subsequently by African converts, falls into seven categories, of which the first is the most important in terms of quantity:

* church registers (births, baptisms, communion, catechists, marriages, funerals)

* mission council records

* education records

* diaries

* files on individual missionaries, notably Bruno Gutmann, and on African teachers, pastors and evangelists

* photographs

* first prints of hymnals and portions of the Bible in African languages.

Six parishes in the Northern Diocese (Kidia, Machame, Mamba, Masama, Mwika, Sika) have already agreed to transfer all their archival material to Moshi. There is additional material of historical interest, even more endangered, lying around elsewhere in the same region. These places, which have no archives of their own, belong to different dioceses (e.g. Ilboru in Arusha Diocese, Nkoaranga in Meru Diocese, Shigatini in Pare Diocese), but the need for cooperation and centralisation is recognised by the respective bishops. In the long term it may be possible to persuade some descendants of the first "native pastors" to donate whatever papers and / or photographs they have.

Creating digital copies

Any material not yet inventoried must be sorted and listed before it can be digitally copied. A finding aid will be produced for such material, serving among other things as a link between the digital copies and the originals.

The research team

To transfer the Leipzig Mission records to the Tanzania National Archives is not considered desirable in Moshi, where the records continue to have a meaning for the Church and descendants of the early Christians. Hence it seems more appropriate to work towards better conservation in Moshi itself, while depositing a copy of all digitalised records in

1) the Moshi archive,

2) the National Archives (Dar es Salaam) [master copy],

3) the British Library,

4) the University of Leipzig and possibly

5) Yale University.

Project Outcome

This project was successful in digitising 20,744 pages of correspondence, mission station diaries, church registers (baptisms, marriages, funerals), parish council minutes, files on education and cash books, as well as some photographs. Most of the material is in German with a small amount in English or kiSwahili. Most of the records are not later than 1930 but where files started before 1930 and continued into the 1940s and 1950s, then the whole file has been digitised.

Nearly all of the material covered in this project is now housed in the archive of the ELCT Northern Diocese, PO Box 195, Moshi. This includes records transferred from the neighbouring parishes of Kidia, Machame, Mamba, Masama, Mwika and Siha, as well as a large amount of material that was already in Moshi.

Digital copies, on 98 DVDs, have been deposited in:

i) the Moshi archive;

ii) the National Archives, Dar es Salaam (master copy, not accessible to researchers)

iii) the Institut f�r Afrikanistik, University of Leipzig

iv) the British Library

Extract ID: 5854

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Extract Date: 23 Feb 2006

The ancient graveyards of Arusha

The In-Between World of M.G. Vassanji follows the author through the landscapes which have inspired many of his works; from the ancient graveyards of Arusha and other colonial outposts (the inspiration for The Book of Secrets, which won Vassanji his first Giller);

Extract ID: 5124

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Extract Date: 23 Feb 2006

The In-Between World of M.G. Vassanji, an one-hour documentary

Channel Canada

While documentary filmmaker Robin Benger was watching the 2003 Giller Prize broadcast of M.G. Vassanji winning his second award, this time for The In-Between World of Vikram Lall, he was intrigued by three things: how unassuming the writer seemed to be; the fact that Vassanji, like Benger, was from Africa, and wrote about it; and that Vassanji was the Canadian contribution to the constellation of star writers of Asian background in international literature. Three years and three continents later, comes The In-Between World of M.G. Vassanji, an one-hour documentary, written and directed by Benger, that takes a look at the places, people and experiences that have lead to the success of this little-known author. Produced by Cogent/Benger Productions in association with Bravo!, the documentary has its world television premiere on Bravo! March 9 at 8pm ET/5pm PT.

"Canadian writers have exploded onto the international literary circuit, and yet the broader Canadian public doesn't know much about them. Our hockey players are better known," says Benger. "I think television in Canada has an opportunity to further increase the understanding of these writers and their imaginations to a wider public."

Born in Nairobi, Kenya, Vassanji grew up impoverished and fatherless in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and earned a PhD in nuclear physics from the University of Pennsylvania before moving to Canada. Common themes in Vassanji's novels deal with East African Indians, their migration overseas, and the idea of immigrant identity - a topic Vassanji struggles with himself. Today, he is a celebrated author, awarded Canada's highest honour, the Order of Canada, along with some of Canada's top literary prizes, which include winning the Giller Prize not once - but twice.

The In-Between World of M.G. Vassanji follows the author through the landscapes which have inspired many of his works; from the ancient graveyards of Arusha and other colonial outposts (the inspiration for The Book of Secrets, which won Vassanji his first Giller); to Nairobi and the murky world of Asian-African corruption (the inspiration for The In-Between World of Vikram Lall); to the Don Valley "immigrant apartment towers" in Toronto (the landscape for No New Land); to the northern solitude of Deep River, Ontario (which acted as inspiration for Passages). The documentary also goes into the back rooms of Canadian publishing and, for the first time, reveals stories of fierce competition over Vassanji's works; highlighted in a rare interview with Ellen Seligman, the legendary editor of Vassanji, Atwood and Ondaatje.

Robin Benger is an award-winning producer/director/writer/narrator of television documentaries. Born in England and raised in South Africa, Benger has been working in Canadian journalism and documentary filmmaking since 1976.

The In-Between World of M.G. Vassanji was produced in association with Bravo!, The Knowledge Network, Canadian Learning Television, with the financial participation of Rogers Cable Network Fund and the Canadian Independent Film and Video Fund; and with the participation of the Canadian Television Fund created by the Government of Canada and the Canadian Cable Industry, CTF: License Fee Program, Telefilm Canada: Equity Investment Program and The Canadian Film or Video Production Tax Credit Program.

Bravo!, a division of CHUM Television, is dedicated to entertaining, stimulating and enlightening viewers who have a taste for a more complex television ( A proud supporter of the Canadian independent production community, Bravo! funds approximately 100 hours of independently produced documentaries and performing arts specials a year. Bravo! has been a major contributor to such productions as Godiva's, Murder 19C: Detective Murdoch Mysteries, Strip Search, Freedom and Drawing Out the Demons: A Film About the Artist Attila Richard Lukacs.

Extract ID: 5123

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Extract Author: Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst
Extract Date: August 2006


John H Marsh Maritime Research Centre, Cape Town: Information sought page.

I'm doing research (and writing a book) about a Tanzanian named Mahjub bin Adam Mohamed (also known as Bayume Mohamed Hussein) who came to Germany about 1930 and was killed 1944 at the Concentration Camp Sachsenhausen. In a document he is quoted as having been a steward on a ship named "Askari" in the 1920s.

I was surprised to find a freighter of that name in the list of the collection [Askari freighter 590/1927 in late 1920s, 1936 & 1938 (1941 sunk).]

Do you have any more information on this ship?

Thank you in advance for your help and greetings from Cologne

Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst

Extract ID: 5454

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Extract Author: Dan Singleton, Round Up staff
Extract Date: 2007 Feb 27

Sundre Wildlife Museum curator has vast experience - Life among African wildlife

Sundre Roundup - Mountain View Publishing

It's a long, long way from the wildlife refuges of east Africa to west central Alberta, but wildlife conservationist, veteran game warden and author Eric Balson has made the journey, recently taking on the job as the first-ever curator of the renowned Chester Mjolsness Museum of Wildlife in Sundre.

The 150-animal museum includes elephant, giraffe, hippo, rhino, crocodile, grizzly bear, wolves, cougar. The world-class museum, housing one of the largest private collections anywhere in Canada, opened in November.

Sundre-area hunter Chester Mjolsness, a long-time friend of Balson, donated the mounts and the museum to the Sundre and District Historical Society.

After much prodding by his friend, Balson finally agreed to take on the curator job earlier this year.

"I'm actually really honoured to be asked by Chester to be the curator," said Balson. "He's been after me for three or four years. Chester said, 'please be my curator.' I said, 'Chester, I've built two museums in Africa and I don't really want to be a curator. I want to spend the rest of my life fishing my life away.' Then he said, 'you're the only one I want.' So when I saw how it was developing, I said I'd work here for sure. It's such a beautiful facility."

Being in charge of such a collection is a responsibility Balson says he gladly embraces, saying conservation and wildlife awareness are vital to the survival of wildlife in both Africa and North America.

"These animals in here have to be culled," he said. "Most of them have reached their prime and have passed their breeding age. They are here for posterity and we should be very proud of Chester for giving this wonderful facility to the town of Sundre."

As curator, Balson will be giving tours to visitors throughout the year, telling guests all about the animals on display. In fact, he has already started giving tours, including for a very enthusiastic group of Olds cubs and scouts, who stayed overnight in the museum.

Balson says he looks forward to visiting with the guests, telling them all he can about the animals and the way they live. And make no mistake, from practical experience, Balson knows a great deal about the life and times of wild animals.

In his recently released book, "On Safari with Bwana Game", Balson tells all about his many wildlife adventures over 60 years. In one section, he recalls one of his first up-close-and-personal meetings with a lion. "Sometime in the night, David and I awoke when the truck bucked and shook under a heavy weight. We opened our eyes to see a pair of hairy thighs rising like tree trunks just alongside our heads - the bulging, muscled legs of a full-grown lion.

"I could neither move nor take my eyes off the scene as the huge lion pulled the carcass free with much grunting and rocking of the springs. It jumped down to pick the load up in its big mouth, and then looked me straight in the eye from a distance of no more than a few feet."

Born in Nairobi, Kenya in 1930, Balson's earliest days were spent in the bush country, including working as a catcher of poisonous snakes.

After working as an engineering surveyor in Tanganyika starting in 1949, Balson was given the opportunity to become a game warden in 1955, an opportunity he jumped at and has never regretted.

At one point in his subsequent years as game warden in a host of African countries he was responsible for an area of over 100,000 square miles.

From 1960 to 1972 he was the first provincial and then senior game warden for the Tanganyika government.

As part of his duties as game warden, he conducted safaris for many famous people, including Yugoslavian president Marshall Tito, Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, wildlife artists David Shepherd and Guy Coheleach.

At that time he was intimately involved in the creation of the Ruaha and Katavi National Parks in Tanzania.

He then received a special mandate from the Tanzanian government to stamp out poaching, leading to several assassination attempts by poachers over the years.

Moving to Zambia in 1972, he helped create a national park in the Zambezi Valley. His efforts as managing director of wildlife conservation in Zambia were sidetracked by the Rhodesian war.

In 1974 he became general manager of the Boatswain Game Industries in Fracistown. Over the following two years, he was a forestry officer and regional game warden for the government of Nepal in the Terai, setting up a national park system in the process.

Starting in 1977, he was wildlife manager of the United Nations' Crocodile Project in Papua, New Guinea for four years, setting up a crocodile farming industry to help preserve the salt water crocodile from extinction.

Before emigrating to Canada in 1993, he managed a massive game ranch in Namibia, the Ohorongo Game Ranch.

Fluent in the Swahili language, he has been given the name Bwana Hakuna Matata, meaning Master Without Troubles.

For his part, Chester Mjolsness says having Balson as the curator of the Sundre museum is an important addition in terms of enhancing the educational experience for all visitors, particularly for the youngsters.

"He's an excellent man for the job," said Mjolsness. "He makes friends easily and he knows all of the animals very, very well, all the African animals at least. He's a hunter and he's had lots of experience. I'm so pleased to have him."

Sundre and District Historical Society president Annette Rose says the new Sundre facility will be an important educational tool for generations to come.

"It will serve as a teaching tool for schools province-wide. It will be viewed by tourists from other countries and will be a lifelong benefit to the Sundre and District Historical Society," said Rose.

Extract ID: 5375

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Extract Author: Paul Bibby
Extract Date: 6 December 2007

Chopper crew survives 'burning' lake crash

Sydney Morning Herald, December 11, 2007

A group of wildlife documentary makers, including two Australians, have survived a Helicopter crash into a caustic lake in the remote north-east of Tanzania.

Five days ago, Sydney cameraman Ben Herbertson and producer Jeff Sibbery were part of an eight-member crew that set off in a military Helicopter over Lake Natron in the middle of the Tanzanian desert to film flamingos for an African wildlife documentary.

The group were in the air for little more than five minutes and were flying at a very low altitude over the mirror-like surface of the lake when the pilot dipped too low, catching the water with the Helicopter's landing skis.

In an instant, the craft plunged nose-first into the shallow lake, breaking apart and sending the crew into the hot, caustic water.

"The skids hit the water and we just crashed and smashed into pieces,'' Herbertson said.

"The next thing I knew I was in the lake and the water was burning my eyes. The reason the flamingos breed there is because the conditions are so harsh there are no predators. The water is physically hot.''

As Herbertson cleared the burning water from his eyes, he could make out the shapes of his fellow passengers - some were still in the wrecked Helicopter, others were stumbling around in the soupy water.

Jeff Sibbery broke his hip on impact, and the Tanzanian military pilot had a badly broken leg and deep bleeding cuts to his face.

Worse still, the wreck of the Helicopter was starting to smoke ominously.

"We managed to get all the injured people out of the Helicopter, but then we had to figure out how to get out of there because it really looked like it was going to explode,'' Herbertson said.

"We just started walking and dragging people out of the water and across the salt lake land but it was a long way - three or four k's. So myself and the guide, Mark, decided to walk to the shore to get help because there were a lot of the Masai tribes people around.''

The women and children of the nearby Masai tribes immediately pitched in, building makeshift stretchers out of their walking sticks and clothes so the two injured men could be carried back to shore, and giving water to the remaining passengers to stave off dehydration in the baking desert sun.

"They were amazing - it was the middle of the desert and they were carrying people and carrying water. It was so sweltering you could dehydrate in about half an hour. The sweat ran down your forehead and the sulphur would run back into your eyes.''

As they were assisting the passengers onto the salt plateau, the wreck of the Helicopter exploded, sending an empty fuel tank flying and a plume of thick black smoke into the air.

The group was planning an extended flight so the craft was heavy with fuel, but luckily nobody was injured in the blast.

By now the group managed to make contact with a number of nearby tour groups, who assisted them back to their camp where they were helped by a group of holidaying German doctors.

Sibbery and the Tanzanian pilot were airlifted out, the former to a hospital in Nairobi in neighbouring Kenya where he was operated on that night.

Herbertson began the long journey back to Sydney via the Tanzanian city of Arusha.

He does not believe a mechanical error was responsible for the crash, nor does he hold any animosity to the pilot, preferring instead to blame the bizarre conditions.

"The lake was literally like glass, you could see the reflection of the sun, the clouds, the heat haze. My theory is that the pilot was disoriented. We were just incredibly lucky - lucky that we were flying pretty slowly, lucky that Mark could speak the language, that the local people were so amazing.''

Sibbery remains in the Aga Khan hospital in Nairobi, while Herbertson is back in Sydney, physically unscathed.

"Once I started speaking to my editor, I got a bit emotional,'' he said.

"I certainly don't like flying anymore. I've had five flights to get back here and I didn't enjoy any of them.''

Extract ID: 5466

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Extract Author: RICHARD HUFF
Extract Date: 6 December 2007

Forrest Sawyer: I almost died in crash

NY DAILY NEWS December 12th 2007

Forrest Sawyer was in Tanzania filming his series for the Travel Channel.

Forrest Sawyer has covered wars and has had guns pointed in his face, but it was a routine film shoot in a Helicopter that nearly killed him.

Last week, Sawyer, his camera crew and others were aboard a Helicopter that flipped in Tanzania's Lake Natron. The producer of Sawyer's series for the Travel Channel suffered a broken hip and the pilot had a broken leg.

"I've been in a lot of strange situations," Sawyer, now back home in New York, said Tuesday. "But I'd never come as remotely close to dying as this."

Sawyer said they were out for the day filming aerial shots for his "Presidential Tour" documentaries, which usually have the president of a country as tour guide.

In this instance, they were flying over Lake Natron, one of the most toxic environments in the world, taking general wildlife shots.

Suddenly, the pilot touched the lake's surface with one of the Helicopter's pylons, causing it to flip over in shallow water.

"Water rushes in," said Sawyer, who suffered a knee injury in the crash. "We're now hanging upside down in the water. I got a breath; I thought it was going to blow."

Also aboard the chopper were wildlife expert Marc Baker and Isaya, a 24-year-old native whom Sawyer befriended. Isaya had taken his first flight ever the day before with the crew.

Sawyer, Isaya and Baker pulled the others from the wreckage and walked them to shore 3 or 4 miles away, according to Sawyer.

"I thought the odds are we were dead," he said. "I knew if we didn't get out of there in time, get out of that space before it heated up to 140 degrees, we were dead."

After reaching the shoreline, they were helped by young members of the Masai tribe, who crafted a makeshift stretcher to drag the injured to get medical care.

Sawyer said the group had become dehydrated and weary.

"I hobbled back and forth. I was saying, 'You can't stop. We die if you don't keep going.'"

Initially, everyone thought they were dead, including executives at the Travel Channel.

It was six hours before the severely injured got real medical treatment. It would be a day before Sawyer spoke to his wife.

The pilot was eventually airlifted to Nairobi. The producer remains hospitalized in Johannesburg, South Africa.

"If certain things hadn't happened, if it hadn't flipped directly on its head, we'd be dead. If it hadn't had the doors off, we'd be dead. If it hadn't been in shallow water, we'd be dead," Sawyer said.

The project will likely be scrapped, according to Sawyer, and they'll regroup to see if they can make a story out of the incident.

No surprise, the crash and the aftermath has had a deep impact on the 58-year-old Sawyer. He says he feels a deep bond with the Masai who were so helpful.

"I've pushed my luck so many times," he said. "I have a 4-year-old girl. I don't need to do crazy things. � When you get that close, it causes you to think about what is important."

Extract ID: 5467

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Extract Author: Simon Mkina
Extract Date: 6 December 2007

Scandal in Tanzania army chopper

African Path, December 12, 2007

WHY was a Tanzanian military Helicopter used to fly a group of foreigners on an assignment to shoot a wildlife documentary film in Arusha Region?

This is the big question now emerging following last week�s near-fatal crash involving a Tanzania People�s Defence Forces (TPDF) chopper in the Lake Natron area.

The 12bn/- aircraft, now believed to have been one of the four Agusta Bell model 412 EP helicopters owned by the military, was apparently on a civilian mission when it went down and exploded on Wednesday morning, with eight people on board.

Although all civilian passengers and military crew members survived, questions now linger on how a TPDF chopper came to be used for an obviously non-military mission.

When contacted for comment by THISDAY, the Deputy Minister for Defence and National Service, Omar Yusuf Mzee, said he was also in the dark over the whole incident.

Mzee said he had instructed the TPDF top brass to send him a report on the accident and circumstances leading up to it.

�I am still waiting for the report�you can contact the military for additional information on the matter,� he said.

The Chief of Defence Forces (CDF), General Davis Mwamunyange, was yesterday not immediately available for comment.

It has been established that the military Helicopter was being deployed by a crew of four television documentary makers from assorted Western countries - Australia, Canada, the United States and Britain � on a mission to film flamingos over Lake Natron.

The Arusha Regional Police Commander, Matei Basilio, identified the crash survivors as Jeffrey Sibbery (Canada), Forest Sowyer (US), Ben Herberston (Australia) and Mark Berker (UK).

Tanzanians who survived the crash were named as Lt. Col. Mayenga, the TPDF pilot; Lt. Edward (his co-pilot), Helicopter technician Gabriel Majala, and the crew�s tour guide Issaya ole Poruo.

Interviewed by one Australian newspaper, two of the crash survivors - Sydney cameraman Ben Herbertson and producer Jeff Sibbery - narrated how they had been in the air for little more than five minutes and were flying at a very low altitude over the lake, when the pilot dipped too low - catching the water with the Helicopter's landing skis.

In an instant, they said, the aircraft plunged nose-first into the shallow lake, breaking apart and tossing those on board into the hot, caustic water.

"The skids hit the water and we just crashed and smashed into pieces,' Herbertson said.

"The next thing I knew, I was in the lake and the water was burning my eyes.�

He added: �The reason the flamingos breed there is because the conditions are so harsh there are no predators. The water is physically hot.'

Sibbery broke his hip on impact, while the pilot, Lt. Col. Mayenga, ended up with a badly broken leg and deep bleeding cuts on his face.

"We managed to get all the injured people out of the Helicopter, but then we had to figure out how to get out of there because it really looked like it was going to explode,' Herbertson said.

According to the survivors, it was the women and children from nearby Maasai tribal homesteads who came to their rescue. And as they were being assisted onto the salt plateau, the wreck of the Helicopter did explode, sending an empty fuel tank flying and a plume of thick black smoke into the air.

Reports say the group was planning an extended flight so the chopper was heavy with fuel, but luckily nobody was injured in the blast.

The injured Sibbery and pilot Mayenga were airlifted out of the area, the former to a hospital in Nairobi in neighbouring Kenya where he underwent an operation that same night.

News of the crash and the type of aircraft involved come in the wake of reports that the government, through the Ministry of Defence and National Service, recently bought four Agusta Bell model 412 EP helicopters for the TPDF in somewhat controversial circumstances.

Investigations by THISDAY have established that the choppers bought are of soft-skin, civilian mode, and not suitable for specialised military operations.

A private local company, Khaisa Enterprises Limited, has since filed a 17bn/- suit against the defence ministry for breach of contract in connection with the supply of helicopters to the TPDF.

According to details of the plaint obtained by THISDAY, Khaisa Enterprises claims that the defence ministry went against a valid contract in which the company was to supply six units of COUGAR AS 532 helicopters manufactured by France�s Eurocopters company at a total cost of 125 million euros (approx. 210bn/-).

It is alleged that the Augusta Bell choppers eventually purchased for the TPDF �had already been rejected by the defendants (defence ministry), on the basis that the same were of inferior quality and were civilian helicopters, while the defendants required helicopters for military use.�

It is further alleged that the defence ministry �purchased the helicopters at a higher cost of $9.263m each, contrary to the ones proposed by the plaintiff (Khaisa Enterprises Ltd) which were relatively cheaper at $4.7m each, thus making the nation suffer a loss of $4.563m for each Helicopter purchased.�

Our sources say the controversial military radar agent Shailesh Vithlani and his business partner were the agents used to supply the Agusta Bell helicopters to the government at vastly inflated prices.

Vithlani is currently wanted by Tanzanian authorities over perjury charges before the Kisutu Resident Magistrate�s Court in Dar es Salaam.

Meanwhile, the actual cause of the military Helicopter crash in Arusha has yet to be established.

Extract ID: 5468

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Extract Date: 24 Dec 2007

Tanzania�s northern rail route to be revamped

The East African

Tanzania�s scenic northern railway lines linking the rich hinterlands of Arusha and Moshi to the port of Tanga is to be revived.

This is contrary to earlier reports that the firm would shut down the route, said the firm�s managing director, Narsimhaswami Jayaram.

However, heavy maintenance and a complete overhaul of some of the sections on the stretch will have to be done.

Mr Jayaram said a survey conducted recently showed that the ageing railway is in dire need of refurbishment.

�The tracks are in a very poor condition,� he said.

He added that the Tanga line is an important route for transport of minerals and cement and will be improve and rehabilitated alongside the entire railway.

The line used to ferry coffee and tea exports from Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions to Tanga. It has many rail sidings that link the Tanga port with factories, flour mills and a city-based industrial area, Gofu.

The sidings ease transportation of raw materials imports such as coal and clinker for the Tanga Cement factory and bulk grain for Pembe Flour Mills.

It is an integral part of a rail-marine transport corridor; Tanga-Arusha-Musoma-Port Bell/Jinja (Uganda) currently being initiated by the East African Community.

The 437-kilometre railroad was built by the Germans a century ago and has never been renewed.

Tanzania Railways will replace the defective portions of the line and deploy new coaches, wagons and locomotives. Passenger and cargo trains schedules are expected to start mid next year.

Tanzania�s entire rail network is about 2,600km long. The central line runs from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma, and the Tanga line from port town to Moshi.

The central line has further branches, including one to Lake Victoria, where it connects with the Uganda Railway through wagon ferries.

From the Tanga line, a connection goes north to Kenya, terminating at Taveta.

Tanzania Railways Ltd (TRL) is a partnership between India�s Rites consortium and a state-owned Reli Assets Holding Company. It started managing the country�s railway in October.

Rites has bought 51 per cent of the shares of the phased-out Tanzania Railways Corporation, while the government of Tanzania retains the remaining 49 per cent.

TRL will run the rail under a 25-year concession under the supervision of the Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority.

The World Bank recently disbursed a $33 million loan for the initial rehabilitation of the railroad and rolling stock, which comprises 90 locomotives, 1,280 freight wagons and 110 passenger coaches.

Tanzania has two railway systems. The other one is the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority, which runs 1,860 km from Dar es Salaam to Kapiri Mposhi in northern Zambia.

Extract ID: 5469

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Extract Author: White House photo by Eric Draper
Extract Date: February 18, 2008

President George W. Bush

President George W. Bush walks with Dr. Aziz Msuya Monday, Feb. 18, 2008, during a tour of the Meru District Hospital outpatient clinic in Arusha, Tanzania. White House photo by Eric Draper

Extract ID: 5564

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Extract Date: February 18, 2008

President Bush Tours Meru District Hospital, Discusses Malaria

Meru District Hospital

Arusha, Tanzania

10:52 A.M. (L)

THE PRESIDENT: Habari zenu. We have just toured the hospital here, which is on the forefront of Tanzania's fight against malaria. I want thank you, Doc, for leading the tour, and for your compassion. I appreciate the Commissioner welcoming us to the district. I also want to thank Minister Mwakyusa for joining us here in Arusha. I'm grateful to members of the Diplomatic Corps who have joined us.

President George W. Bush greets a young child on his arrival Monday, Feb. 18, 2008, for a tour of the outpatient clinic of the Meru District Hospital in Arusha, Tanzania. White House photo by Eric Draper During the visit at this hospital we met pregnant women who will receive insecticide-treated bed nets. We witnessed a pediatric ward and observed children being diagnosed and treated. We saw how an historic partnership is saving lives across the continent of Africa.

For years malaria has been a health crisis in sub-Sahara Africa. The disease keeps sick workers home, schoolyards quiet, communities in mourning. The suffering caused by malaria is needless and every death caused by malaria is unacceptable. It is unacceptable. It is unacceptable to people here in Africa, who see their families devastated and economies crippled. It is unacceptable to people in the United States, who believe every human life has value, and that the power to save lives comes with the moral obligation to use it.

In 2005, I announced that the United States would work to save lives through our Malaria Initiative. Under this five-year, $1.2 billion program, we're working with 15 African countries to cut malaria-related deaths by half.

Our strategy to achieve this goal is straightforward. First, the initiative supports indoor residual spraying to keep deadly mosquitoes at bay. Here in Tanzania spraying campaigns have reached hundreds of thousands of homes, and have protected more than a million people.

Second, the initiative supports treatment for those who are most vulnerable to malaria, especially pregnant women. Here in Tanzania, more than 2,400 health workers have been trained to provide specialized treatment that prevents malaria in expectant mothers.

Third, the initiative provides life-saving drugs. Here in Tanzania, the program has supported more than a million courses of treatment, and has trained more than 5,000 health workers to use them.

Fourth, the initiative supports the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and Laura and I are about to distribute some of those bed nets. This is one of the simplest technologies imaginable, but it's also one of the most effective. Here in Tanzania, we're working with the government and partners such as the Global Fund to provide bed net vouchers for infants and pregnant mothers. Women can use these vouchers to buy bed nets at local shops at a huge discount. So far, an estimated 5 million vouchers have been distributed through these programs.

Today, I'm pleased to announce new steps in the bed net campaign. Within the next six months, the United States and Tanzania, in partnership with the World Bank and the Global Fund, will begin distributing 5.2 million free bed nets. This ambitious nationwide program will provide enough nets to protect every child between the ages of one and five in Tanzania.

President George W. Bush and Mrs. Laura Bush pose for a photo Monday, Feb. 18, 2008, with patients and staff at the Meru District Hospital outpatient clinic in Arusha, Tanzania. White House photo by Eric Draper The bed net campaign is supported by Tanzanian manufacturers, including A to Z Textiles, which we will visit later today. So as this campaign protects women and children from malaria, it also boasts -- boosts local economies. It helps develop a culture of bed net use that will be sustained long after relief programs have ended.

Over the past two years we've applied our strategy here in Tanzania, and we're seeing results. In June 2006, at the District Hospital in Muleba, more than 50 people died because of malaria. In June 2007, after a spraying campaign supported by our Malaria Initiative, the number of deaths had dropped to five. In Zanzibar the percentage of infants infected with malaria has dropped from about 20 percent to less than 1 percent.

The campaign to fight malaria has the support of government and private citizens alike. United States schoolchildren have raised money to send bed nets to Africa. Houses of worship have sent their prayers, and their faithful, compassionate men and women who travel here to confront the suffering and heal the sick.

Tanzanian citizens are stepping forward. In one area, residents launched a campaign called Kataa Malaria -- for those who don't speak Swahili, it means "reject malaria." (Laughter.) As part of the campaign, workers went door-to-door to teach people how to use bed nets. They launched TV and radio ads. They spoke in mosques about malaria prevention and treatment.

And their efforts are working. This is a campaign of compassion. This is a practical way to help save lives. It's in the interests of the United States to save lives. And it's in the interests of the Tanzanian government to put forth an effective strategy. Our interests are combined, and our interests are now making a significant effort.

And so on behalf of the United States of America we say, God bless you. (Applause.) And to the Tanzanian government we say, thank you for your efficient and hard work. (Applause.) And so it's been an honor to be with you. Asante. (Applause.)

END 11:04 A.M. (Local)

Extract ID: 5563

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Giants who walked the earth

Melville Memorial Lecture

These surveys, the first of their kind in Africa to cover a whole country were published after the war and have recently been republished as they are still the basic source of essential natural resources data for the country. There are two volumes and accompanying maps: "The Soils, Vegetation and Traditional Agriculture of Zambia" Volume 1 Central and Western Zambia, Volume II by C.G. Trapnell and J.N. Clothier and C.G. Trapnell respectively.

This work led Professor Hugh Bunting (Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading) in a Tropical Agricultural Association Melville Memorial Lecture to describe Trapnell along with others including Geoffrey Milne, Clement Gillman and John Phillips as "Giants who walked the earth in East and Southern Africa in earlier years."

Extract ID: 4794

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Extract Author: Robert S. Cragg
Page Number: 1

British Commonwealth Postmarks

Attached are lists of villages and other offices where you may find a circular date stamp. Well, most are circular and almost all are dated. The lists are loosely arranged as follows:

Name as it appears in an early cancel or in the majority of cancels. Many town names, especially in Africa and Asia, have a number of spellings in English. These are ignored. But, if the town name changed significantly, the newer name is in parentheses. Names often changed because of confusing same or similar names in the same colony.

Also, independence led to de-Anglicization, especially if the town name included words such as "fort". If the town is a post office outside of the colony but administered by the colony, that is indicated.

Next is the earliest date "known" of a dated cancel or, sometimes the date of opening. If not from literature, then from my collection. Sadly, most early dates from my collection are not that early.

Then there are letter or numeral killers used alone or in conjunction with a date stamp. Sometimes several different numbers were used, perhaps in different styles. This is a huge field, only touched on here.

Lastly, the location of the village is given (or will later be given) by latitude and longitude. Sometimes this is only approximate, variables including inaccurate old maps, inaccurate new maps, moving of towns, confusion over similar town names, quirky software and my own clerical errors.

The lists are a place to get started. They are incomplete, the degree depending on what literature is available to the author. Focus is on villages with post offices around the turn of the century without attempting to include newer offices. The cut-off date for each colony varies, depending on manageability of the number of offices.

Many of the village marks are rare. Occasionally, only a single example is known. Some offices were open only a few months and have disappeared from modern maps.


[short list, with some names from Northern Tanzania]

Arusha 1922 3s22 36e41

Babati 1935 4s13 35e45

Kondoa 1920 4s54 35e47

Loliondo 1937 2s03 35e37

Mbulu 1920 sl 3s51 35e32

Monduli 1939 3s18 36e26

Moshi 1917 3s21 37e20

Ngare Nairobi 1928

Oldeani 1934 3s21 35e33

Singida 1926 4s49 34e45

Usa River 1929 3s22 36e50

Extract ID: 4302

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Extract Author: Mr. C. J. W. Hodgson
Page Number: 18, Vol 3
Extract Date: 12 Dec 1959

The Iringan

The Magazine of St. Michael's and St. George's School, IRINGA,Tanganyika,East Africa

To my Lords Bishop we also extend a sincere and cordial welcome, not only in your own person but also as representatives of the great Missions in which you serve. You have been the pioneers in founding and fostering education in Tanganyika. For this we are deeply grateful to you and I feel it is singularly appropriate that you, Bishop Chambers, should be here today as it is the silver jubilee year of the Arusha School which was the first European School to be built in Tanganyika and of which you, sir, were the founder.

Extract ID: 3730

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Extract Author: Robert S. Cragg
Page Number: 2

British Commonwealth Postmarks - Tanganyika Full List


Amani 1922 5s06 38e37

Arusha 1922 3s22 36e41

Babati 1935 4s13 35e45

Bagamoyo 1918 6s26 38e54

Biharamulo 1930 2s38 31e20

Bukene 1931 4s14 32e53

Bukoba 1917 1s20 31e49

Bwembwela 1926 sl

Dabaga 1931 8s06 35e54

Dar Es Salaam 1919 6s48 39e17

Dodoma 1919 6s11 35e45

Fela 1932 sl 2s38 33e01

Geita 1936 2s52 32e10

Gulwe 1920 sl 6s30 36e29

Handeni 1931 5s26 38e01

Ifakara 1928 8s08 36e41

Iringa 1920 7s46 35e42

Isaka 1927 3s54 32e56

Kahama 1927 3s50 32e36

Kamachuma 1929 1s35 31e37

Karema 1931 6s49 30e26

Kasanga 1931 8s28 31e09

Kasulu 1927 4s34 30e06

Kibata 1925 8s28 38e58

Kibondo 1931 3s35 30e42

Kidete 1934 sl 6s25 37e16

Kidugallo 1930 6s47 38e12

Kigoma 1921 4s52 29e38

Kigombe 1927 8s47 36e07

Kigwe 1933 sl 5s10 33e08

Kikale 1923 7s50 39e12


Kilossa 1919 6s50 36e59

Kilwa 1919 8s45 39e24

Kimamba 1927 6s47 37e08

Kingolwira 1934 sl 6s47 37e46

Kintinku 1933 sl 5s53 35e14

Kinyangiri 1931 sl 4s27 34e37

Kisangiro 1934 3s42 37e34?

Kiuhuhwi 1931 sl 5s12 38e40

Kondoa 1920 4s54 35e47

Korogwe 1925 5s09 38e29

Kungutas 1937 8s27 33e14

Lembeni 1933 sl 3s47 37e37

Lindi 1921 10s00 39e43

Liwale 1922 9s46 37e56

Loliondo 1937 2s03 35e37

Lugari 10s52 34e52

Lupa River (Chunya) 1934 8s32 33e25

Lupembe 1920 sl 9s15 35e15

Mabuki 1928 2s59 33e11

Mafia 1915 7s48 39e49

Mahenge 1919 8s41 36e43

Makuyuni 1934 sl 3s33 36e06

Malangali 1923 8s34 34e51

Malinyi 1919 8s56 36e08

Manda 1922 7s58 32e26

Mantare 1935 2s43 33e13

Manyoni 1923 5s45 34e50

Mara River 1938 1s32 33e47?

Masasi 1926 10s43 38e48

Maswa 1927 2s40 33e58

Maurui 1931 sl 5s07 38e23

Mbamba Bay 1935 11s17 34e46

Mbeya 1928 8s53 33e26

Mbosi 1930

Mbulu 1920 sl 3s51 35e32

Mdandu 1927 9s09 34e42

Mikese 1930 6s46 37e54

Mikindani 1922 10s17 40e07

Mingoyo 1933 10s06 39e38

Mkalama 1926 4s07 34e38

Mkata 1932 5s47 38e17

Mkumbara 1934

Mnyussi 1931 sl 5s12 38e34

Mohoro 1924 8s08 39e10

Mombo 1929 4s53 38e17

Monduli 1939 3s18 36e26

Morogoro 1919 6s49 37e40

Moshi 1917 3s21 37e20

Mpapua 1920 6s21 36e29

Mtama 1932 10s18 39e22

Mtotohovu 1929

Mufindi 1930 8s35 35e17

Muhesa 1926 5s10 38e47

Musoma 1920 1s30 33e48

Mwakete 1934 9s21 34e13

Mwanza 1917 2s31 32e54

Mwaya 1919 8s55 36e50

Nachingwea 10s22 38e45

Namanyere 1923 7s31 31e03

Nansio 1934 2s08 33e03

Ndanda 1936 10s29 39e00

Newala 1932 10s56 39e18

Ngara 1935 2s28 30e39

Ngare Nairobi 1928

Ngare Nanyuki 1936 3s08 36e50

Ngerengere 1930 6s45 28e07

Ngomeni 1930 5s08 38e53

Ngudu 1933 2s58 33e20

Njombe 1930 9s20 34e46

Nzega 1924 4s13 33e11

Oldeani 1934 3s21 35e33

Pangani 1922 5s26 38e58

Pongwe 1939 5s08 38e58

Puma 1933 sl 4s59 34e43

Ruvu 1930 6s48 38e39

S H Club 1947

Sadani 1936 6s03 38e47

Sanya Juu 1939 3s10 37e03

Sao Hill 1933 8s20 35e12

Saranda 1922 5d43 34e59

Seke 1931 sl 3s20 33e31

Shinyanga 1924 3s40 33e26

Singida 1926 4s49 34e45

Sira River 1926

Soga 1931 6s49 38e52

Songea 1921 10s41 35e39

Sumbawanga 1932 7s58 31e37

Tabora 1919 5s01 32e48

Tandala 1919 9s23 34e14

Tanga 1917 5s04 39e06

Tengeni 1933 sl 5s24 38e40

Tukuyu 1918 9s15 33e39

Tunduru 1932 11s07 37e21

Usa River 1929 3s22 36e50

Utete 1927 7s5938e47

Wilhelmstal (Lushoto) 1917 4s47 38e17

Extract ID: 4780