Africa News Online

Book ID 368

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 October 29

Tanzanian Authorities Crackdown On Poachers

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency

Wildlife authorities have launched a massive crackdown on poachers in Tanzania's national parks, amid reports that the country had lost 35 percent of its wildlife population in the past five years.

A total of 4,333 arrests have been made in the sprawling Serengeti National Park, in Mara region, northern Tanzania, in the last four years alone.

Authorities also recovered a total of 24 guns, 100 hunting dogs, 32 axes and 673 machetes during the same period in the world-famous Serengeti.

The crackdown comes at a time when speculators say that the country's wildlife had plummeted tremendously.

A recent report in the British newspaper, The Guardian, said that animal population in Tanzania had dropped to an 'unsustainable' point.

Independent sources say that the population of rhinos in the south-eastern Seolous Game park alone had declined from 2,000 in 1970 to less than 150 three years ago.

Government officials, however, say that the number of elephants there had risen from 30,000 to 57,000 within 10 years. As a measure to curb the Poaching menace, park wardens are currently being retrained in skills that would help them fight off sophisticated poacher weaponry, the Tanzania National Parks Authority, said.

The authority's director-general, Gerald Bigurube, said that the body was also enlisting the support of villagers to betray the poachers before they struck. In the Selous Game Reserve, 45 villages are now engaged in the protection of the wild animals on their land.

Village scouts are assisting the Selous game authorities to combat Poaching in return for an income which the villages deploy in development projects.

Similar efforts are being employed by the Kilimanjaro National Park Authority where Poaching, especially of bushbuck and buffalo, is very rampant.

Confirming that Poaching is rampant in the region, the authority's chief park warden, L. ole Moirana, said game trophies found their way to markets abroad while game meat was often supplied to local butchers.

Unconfirmed reports suggest that game wardens often work in difficult and at times dangerous situations without necessary logistics like weapons and radio equipment.

Compared to the 1980s, authorities are, however, elated that elephant Poaching has at least been brought to a bare minimum.

The incidents had been so rampant in the Selous that a special campaign code- named 'Operation Uhai' (operation life) was launched to avert the slaughter of further beasts.

As the largest protected area in the world and home to over half of Tanzania's elephants, the Selous is a big attraction to tourists.

Extract ID: 1442

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 1999 Nov 1

Pilot Averts Tragedy As Plane Tyre Bursts

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency. Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

A pilot Sunday averted a tragedy when the rear tyre of an Air Tanzania aircraft with 74 passengers on board burst during take off at the northern Kilimanjaro International Airport.

At least eight passengers were treated for shock, after they were evacuated from emergency exits. The Kilimanjaro police chief was quoted as saying that the incident occurred at 1.20 p.m. (1020 GMT).

He said the pilot managed to stop the plane after one of its tyres burst as it headed for take off. The Boeing 737 was headed for Entebbe, Uganda, via Kigali, Bujumbura.

Extract ID: 1441

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Judith Achieng
Extract Date: 1999 November 4

Is Going To School A Preserve For Privileged Few?

Copyright (c) 1999 All Africa News Agency.

There are widespread concerns in Tanzania that secondary school education has become a preserve for a privileged few. An estimated seven percent of primary school leavers, way below the sub-Saharan average of 20 percent, proceed to this level of education. Every year, some quarter million pupils fail to get places in secondary Schools.

Paul Shabani's day begins and ends at the Indian Ocean harbour in the hot and humid Tanzanian capital of Dar Es Salaam, where he makes about 400 shillings (TShs 800 to the US dollar) selling iced water to dock workers. Shaban, 16, failed to secure a place at a government secondary school last year, although his primary school grades had been satisfactory.

'Life must move on, with or without education. It is better to do something instead of just giving up,' he says. Shabani is among the more than 250,000 pupils who each year fail to make it to secondary school due to shortage of Schools.

Secondary school education has become a preserve for a privileged few in Tanzania where only about seven percent of its primary school leavers, way below the sub-Saharan average of 20 percent, get admitted.

In 1995, 38,412 out of the total 386,584 candidates, who sat the final primary school examinations, were selected to public secondary Schools, while only 28,002 went to private secondary Schools.

This figure is too low compared, for example, with neighbouring Kenya where more than half of all primary school leavers is admitted to secondary Schools.

'If you are 100 in a class and only two are selected to go to secondary school, what is the use of trying,' says Shabani. The shocking statistics also applies for primary Schools where the cost of education is getting out of hand for many parents.

Although the Tanzanian government maintains that it offers free primary education, under the Universal Primary Education UPE programme, it costs a parent as much as 40,000 shillings each year in contributions, a sum majority of parents can hardly afford, in a country where poverty is a largely rural phenomenon and incomes are as low as a quarter a dollar a day.

More than 50 percent of Tanzanians are unable to meet their daily nutritional requirements, placing the East African country among 15 of the world's 15 poorest countries with a gross domestic product GDP per capita of 220 US dollars.

Out of the East African nation's 77 percent of children enrolled each year, only about half are able to complete primary school. Of the total, only about 15 percent secure a place in both public and private Schools.

Leading educationalist Suleiman Sumra blames the government's changing policies for the downturn in Tanzania's education system. 'It has been a trend in Tanzania to adopt policies without proper planning and without considering how to carry out the plans,' he says.

Since independence from Britain in 1961, the Tanzanian government has allocated at least 20 percent of its national budget to education.

In 1977, the then ruling party, Tanzania African national Union TANU, which later became Chama cha Mapinduzi CCM inaugurated a programme of compulsory universal primary school, based on the late President Julius Nyerere's socialist system of Ujamaa, where villagers helped to build Schools.

About three years later, nearly all school going age children, about 3.6 million, triple the number at independence, had joined the school system. And in 1985, primary school enrolment had reached 190,000.

Literacy among adults had also reached about 75 percent, above the African average, as a result of the socialist government's compulsory worker education campaign. However, much of the gains made in education in the 1970s and 1980s have been reduced by Tanzania's economic woes.

With the total enrolment in Tanzanian Schools about 3.8 million, and with more than 90 percent of the education budget going into the 60,000 teachers' salaries, Sumra says the quality of education is bound to decline even further.

'All the meat has already been cut off and only the bones are left,' he says. 'The government has stopped making new investment in education for maintaining Schools, all it's doing is paying teachers' salaries'. Everyone had equal accessibility to education... But the pressure on resources became too much that it affected the quality of education.

In his recent study, Equal Access To Education, An Illusion, a professor at Tanzania's University of Dar Es Salaam says at least 50,000 new Schools are needed to put all Tanzanian children in Schools, if the East African country is to achieve its education-for-all goal.

Servacius Likwelile, who runs the Dar Es Salaam-based Research on Poverty Alleviation REPOA, a non-governmental organisation NGO, attributes the declining quality of education in Tanzania to poverty and limited financial resources in the government.

'Because of UPE, everyone had equal accessibility to education. But the pressure on resources became too much that it affected the quality of education,' he says.

The establishment last year of a 45-billion-shilling Education Sector Reform Programme by the government of President Benjamin Mkapa is expected to improve the enrolment and quality of education in Tanzania.

Under the new scheme, a total of 13,000 new classrooms will be built to ensure that at least 42 percent of children enrolled in school achieve a full primary education.

Social issues such as culture have also affected education, particularly of the girls although the gender gap in enrolment has been closed in Tanzania.

In 1998, up to 100 female pupils in primary Schools in the Indian Ocean islands of Zanzibar and Pemba were expelled because they had already been married off by their parents, a common practice in the region.

According to the deputy Education Minister, Musa Ane Salima, the Tanzanian law hands out lenient punishment to parents who engage their children early in marriage.

Under the education act, an offender can only receive a maximum six-month jail term with an option of a 10,000 fine. 'There is need to review the act, so such parents can face stiffer Penalties,' he says.

Besides early marriages, girls spend much less time in their studies compared with boys because of domestic responsibilities. 'Girls have to do house chores, cook, fetch water and firewood,' says Astronaut Rutende, a gender activist in Dar Es Salaam.

Until recently, performance of girls in terms of enrolment and at the secondary school level, which was limited to very few primary school leavers left fewer girls than boys admitted. Recent policy changes that encouraged gender equality in Schools has raised a share of girls to 45 percent from 39 percent in comparison with boys.

Although the government has reversed its decision to expel pregnant girls from school, to offer them a chance to complete their education, the burden of responsibility for their reproductive health remains solely with their parents.

Extract ID: 167

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 1999 November 8

Nyerere: The Early Years

Julius Kambarage Nyerere was born at Butiama near the shores of Lake Victoria in the north of Tanganyika. His father had 22 wives and Julius was one of 26 children from his eighth wife, Kambarage.

Julius's father, Nyerere Burito, was a junior chief of the Wazanaki tribe. His grandfather was appointed the first chief of the Wazanaki by the Germans and when he died, his position was awarded on merit to Burito.

When Julius was a small child, he played around naked in his father's house. The other children were envious of him because his father was a chief, and yet the family was not rich.

Julius remembers how the cold troubled him one night and how his mother gave up her dark cotton cloth to cover him and the other children, though she had nothing left for herself.

Like other village children, Julius helped his parents fetch water, chop wood and look after the goats.

In an interview with Drum, Julius's mother remembered him as 'a good child - in fact, almost too good! If I had to go somewhere and I told him to stay in one place, I would find him there when I came back.

'Among his stepbrothers, there was one called Bill, and the two of them became inseparable for a long time. They also acted as leaders among the children at home.'

Julius remembers well the first day he saw a motor car, when he was about six or seven. The car was on the road near their home and strange people stood around it.

Julius was in the bush nearby, watching them carefully. Then he ran back to his father and told him that there were visitors to see him. His father asked him, 'My son, are these visitors Europeans or Indians?'

Julius could not answer because he did not even know what Europeans or Indians were, let alone the difference between them.

When he reached the age of twelve, he was taken to school. He recalls that he had no clothes of his own and wore a piece of cloth given to him by his mother. She also gave him money to buy new clothes.

Julius was the smallest child in his group and he says that he was clumsier than many of the others.

One of his school friends says, 'Julius was always truthful, one had to believe what he told you. All the time Julius was buried in books. One of his favourite authors was John Stuart Mill, who left him thinking seriously about the rights of man.'

Nyerere's mother noticed a change in her child after he started school. 'He was still considerate and helped me during the holidays, but he seemed always deep in thought.'

When Julius was 22 he entered Makerere College, Uganda. Chief Fundikira, who was to become a minister in Nyerere's first Cabinet after independence, remembers those days: 'If you want the truth, one did not particularly notice Nyerere.'

Yet it was at Makerere where Nyerere learned to lead. His organisation, the Tanganyika African Welfare Association, was not a political one, but it aimed to assist the small number of Tanganyikan students at Makerere.

The welfare association soon joined with the Tanganyika African Association, an organisation started by Tanganyika civil servants, which was also restricted to welfare problems.

Nyerere wanted to fight against discrimination, for African rights, for equal work and equal salaries. He felt bitter about the favours which the Europeans enjoyed.

Nyerere later described these demands as the 'politics of sheer complaint'. They did not get to the root of the problem. The aim was to make their rulers listen to African grievances so that they could make changes.

In those days there was no talk of removing the British from power. Nyerere says, 'When I was born, there was not a single person who questioned why we were being ruled, and if my father had heard that we wanted changes, he would have asked me, 'What do you think you can do, you small silly boy?'

Nyerere's father died during the First World War, so he was never to ask this question of Nyerere. It was Nyerere's mother who had to confront her son's involvement in the fight for independence.

'I began to know about Julius's activities when he was teaching at Pugu College in 1952. Every day a man called Aziz Dossa came to our house and he would talk with Julius for a long time. One day I overheard them talking about taking over the government from the Europeans.

'I became afraid. Later I asked Julius if what I heard was true. When he said yes, I became more frightened. I told him that what he was doing was bad. God had given him a good job and now he wanted to spoil it. But he said that what he was doing would benefit not only us but everyone in the country.'

Three years later Julius's mother went to meet him at the airport, when he was returning from New York after delivering his famous address to the United Nations.

When she arrived, she was very surprised to find so many people there. The crowd was shouting, 'Tanu! Tanu! Tanu!'

'That was the first time that I realised that my son had become such an important person. Soon after this, he resigned from his job to work for Tanganyika African National Union full-time.'

Nyerere's Tanganyika African National Union (Tanu) suffered constant harassment before the 1958/59 general election. Nyerere was banned from making public speeches, and twelve Tanu branches were shut by the government. And as if the banning order were not enough, Nyerere was accused of libelling two British officials and put on trial. The following excerpt is from Drum, November 1958.

The SUN has not yet risen but hundreds of people are already gathered round the small courthouse in Dar-es-Salaam. Some have come from distant villages, with blankets and cooking utensils as if for a camping holiday. They have been in Dar-es-Salaam for more than a week at the trial of the president of the Tanganyika African National Union, Julius Nyerere, on a charge of criminal libel. It was alleged that Nyerere wrote an article in which two district commissioners were libelled.

Police constables line the streets round the court and a riot squad stands ready nearby in case of trouble. As the time draws near for the court to open, the crowds jostle and shove for the best positions.

The trial has been a mixture of exciting arguments, explosive surprises and hours of dullness. Mr. Pritt (Nyerere's counsel) insisted that the two commissioners should be called to give evidence. He accused the government of prosecuting Nyerere without investigating his allegations.

The government was telling the world that if anybody said anything against a district commissioner, he could be put into prison for saying what was true.

When Nyerere gave evidence, he took full responsibility for the article and said that he had written it to draw the attention of the government to certain complaints. He was followed by three witnesses who spoke of 'injustices' they had suffered at the hands of the two district commissioners.

Halfway through the proceedings, the attorney-general appeared in court in person to announce on behalf of the Crown that it would not continue with the counts concerning one of the commissioners.

Now, on the last day of the show, the stars begin to arrive: Mr. Summerfield, the chief public prosecutor, Mr. NM Rattansey, defence counsel who is assisting the famous British QC, Mr. DN Pritt.

Mr. Nyerere, wearing a green bush shirt, follows later. He smiles and waves as members of the crowd cheer him.

The curtain goes up with the arrival of Mr. LA Davies, the magistrate. The court is packed. Everyone is tense and hushed. The magistrate sums up then comes to judgment - Nyerere is found guilty!

The magistrate, in passing sentence, says he has formed the impression that Nyerere is an extremely intelligent and responsible man. He fines Nyerere Pounds150 or six months. The money is raised by locals and the Kenya defence fund.

Tanu coasted to a landslide victory in the 1958/59 general election, held under a tripartite system that required every constituency to send one African, one Asian and one European member to the legislature. Each voter had to vote for one candidate of each race.

Besides its own African candidates, Tanu sponsored an Asian and European candidate for each seat. It won 29 out of 30 seats.

Following this, the new British governor, Sir Richard Turnbull, announced that Tanganyika would be developed as an African state. In doing so, the British acknowledged for the first time the power of the nationalist movement. In March 1959, Governor Turnbull increased Tanu's role in the government significantly, appointing five members of the newly elected Legislative Council to his 12-man cabinet.

Initially only three ministerial posts were to be filled by Legislative Councillors, one from each race group - but Nyerere insisted on an African majority. Turnbull conceded, and three Africans, an Asian and a European, all Tanu supporters, were appointed. For Nyerere. this victory was a turning-point. Freedom was now in sight. In its March 1959 issue, Drum interviewed Nyerere on his vision of the future.

TANGANYIKA WILL be the first, most truly multiracial democratic country in Africa. When we get our freedom, the light of a true multiracial democracy will be put high upon the top of the highest mountain, on Kilimanjaro, for all to see, particularly South Africa and America.

Tanganyika will offer the people of those countries free entry, without passports, to come and see real democracy at work. As long as we do not have a popular government elected by the people on democratic principles, we will strive for freedom from any kind of domination.

We regard the Trusteeship as part of a scheme to keep Tanganyika under the British Crown indefinitely. The greatest enemy of our vision is the Colonial Office.

But Tanganyika cannot be freed by drawing up resolutions or by tabulating long catalogues of the evils of colonialism. Nor do we find it enough to tell rulers to quit Tanganyika. It will be freed only by action, and likewise the whole of Africa.

Continued colonialism is preventing investment in this country. Germany, for example, cannot invest money as long as the British are still here. I agree that the country lacks technicians. So what? Shall we give the British another 40 years to train them? How many have they trained in the past 40 years?

As far as money for a self-governing Tanganyika is concerned, Tanganyika has not been receiving much money from the British taxpayer at all. For the past 11 years, Tanganyika has only received Pounds9 million. I can raise 100 times that within a year if it becomes necessary.

I believe that the continued, not existence, but citizenship of the European would be taken for granted had not the white man created a Kenya, a Central Africa, a South Africa and other similar places and situations.

African nationalism is not anti-white but simply anti-colonialist. When George Washington fought the imperialists, he was fighting for the divine right of Americans to govern themselves; he was not fighting colour.

The white man wants to live in Africa on his terms. He must dominate and be recognised by the rest of the inhabitants of this continent as their natural master and superior. But that we cannot accept. What we are after is fellow citizenship, and that is exactly what is frightening the white man.

The question is not whether we must get rid of whites, but whether they must get rid of themselves.

Whites can no longer dominate in Africa. That dream is gone. Africa must be governed by Africans in the future. Whether an immigrant African will have an equal part to play in this free Africa depends upon him and him alone. In Tanganyika, we are determined to demonstrate to the whole of Africa that democracy is the only answer.

We are being held back, not only by local Europeans, but by the Colonial Office and, I believe, by Europeans in neighbouring countries, who are frightened of the possibility of success in Tanganyika.

Extract ID: 1448

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Morice Maunya
Extract Date: 1999 November 14

Two Ethnic Groups Clash In Tanzania

Panafrican News Agency

Police and officials rushed Saturday to quell a fresh outbreak of fighting between the Maasai and Warangi ethnic of groups in northern Tanzania.

At least 30 dwellings belonging to the Maasai were burnt and an undisclosed number of their cattle and goats went missing during a recent attack by the Warangi, officials said.

District Commissioner Moses Sanga of Kondoa, a predominantly Warangi area, has confirmed the incident. He said the Warangi burnt Maasai huts to avenge the beating of Warangi women by a group of young Maasai warriors on 4 November.

In retaliation, the Maasai re-grouped and attacked again last week. The Maasai in question live in Kiteto district of Arusha region, which which is next to Kondoa district.

The extend of casualties was not immediately known.

Alarmed that the situation might get nastier, the police and administration officials rushed to the scene over the weekend to sort out the problem.

The officials included the chief government administrator of Dodoma region, Isidori Shirima and his Arusha counterpart, Daniel Ole Njoolay.

The government was trying to bring together Warangi and Maasai elders to pacify their followers, Shirima said after a tour of the area Friday.

However, sources told PANA that the real cause of bad blood between the Maasai and their neighbours is a scramble for scare land and water resources.

While the Warangi are mainly subsistence farmers, the Maasai are nomad pastoralists who want their extended livestock to be given free access to grazing land and water resources.

Kondoa-Kiteto area lies on a dry belt with scarce arable land and water resources. The Warangi accuse the Maasai of encroaching their little farmland with impunity.

Extract ID: 1455

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 1999 November 29

Tanzania Embarks On 100 Million Tree-Planting Campaign

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency

The Tanzanian government has directed district and provincial administrators to effectively implement an ambitious national tree planting campaign launched by President Benjamin Mkapa in April.

The campaign is aimed at re-greening the country by planting 100 million Trees by June. Tanzania currently loses between 300,000 and 400,000 hectares of forest annually due to rampant tree felling.

Forest cover destruction is particularly alarming in the rural areas where shifting cultivation and livestock keeping form the key modes of life. The country's central and north-western areas are already threatened with accelerating desertification.

The minister of state in the vice president's office, Edward Lowassa, issued a directive 10 November to all district commissioners to ensure a thorough implementation of the campaign.

'Planted seedlings must be taken care of to make sure that a large percentage of them thrives. Botanists should advise the villagers on suitable species of Trees for each region,' he said.

The vice president's office is co-ordinating the campaign launched 10 April by Mkapa in Mwanza region, one of the areas affected by chronic drought.

Media tycoon Reginald Mengi, who is chairman of the National Environmental Management Council, has backed the exercise with personal financial support by rewarding successful environmental groups with cash.

Last week he gave 112,000 shillings (about 140 US dollars) to a family that planted 3,600 Trees around their home area. Some 15 million Trees have been planted in Mengi's native Kilimanjaro region through his initiative in the past five years.

Similar campaigns are going on throughout the country in urban and rural areas, including refugee camps.

The minister for community development, women affairs and children, Mary Nagu, recently urged Burundian refugees in the western region of Kigoma to stop felling Trees and instead join the government's green campaign.

Like their Tanzanian hosts, the refugees rely heavily on wood fuel for their daily energy requirements. Wood is by far the most important source of energy in Tanzania, exceeding 90 percent of the total national energy supply.

Apart from wood fuels demand, much of deforestation in the country is due to unsuitable agricultural methods and over-grazing. These activities transform natural forests into marginal lands and, as a result, land degradation and even desertification are accelerating.

Extract ID: 1456

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 Dec 16

Tanzania Ready For Millennium Bug

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency.

While most people will be celebrating noisily at new year eve parties, specialists in government agencies and in industry will be busy trying to avert a huge mess 31 December.

Among them is the newly established National Emergency Response Centre set up by the government to deal with the eventuality of the Y2K computer problem - popularly known in Information Technology as the 'Millennium bug.'

The deputy director of the National Y2K Central Co-ordination Office, Capt. Yacoub Mohamed, said the centre has been tasked with keeping a close eye on critical sectors. The critical sectors include energy, agriculture, transport, telecommunications, banking and finance, defence and commerce.

Members of the centre, who comprise technical staff, the Red Cross, the fire brigade and the police, are to be on full alert in case they have to be deployed to deal with emergencies during the turn of 2000.

The Millennium bug, often referred to as Y2K, arises because many older computers use only the last two digits of a year to record dates. Unless corrected, such systems could treat 2000 as 1900, generating errors or system crashes 1 January.

However, in the field of aviation, Tanzanian aerodromes are less likely to suffer adversely from the ramifications of the problem due to obsolete navigational equipment in the country's aerodromes, PANA has learnt.

'But this does mean they are entirely 'immune',' David Sawe, chair of the national Y2K advisory committee, said. 'They will suffer dependency risks if their service providers like those who provide them with electricity, telephone services or financial systems fail, because they are not compliant.'

As a result, the government under the ADM 2000 project, has been working round the clock to ensure that the Meteorology Department, the Directorate of Aerodromes and the Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority meet full compliance.

The Directorate of Aerodromes is sinking more bore-holes and is increasing the number of generators at the country's two international airports for fear of suffering at the hands of service providers who may not be compliant by 1 January.

'But we are hard up for cash,' Philbert Tibaijuka, Raphael Bokango and Vincent Mandegu - project managers of the respective agencies, said.

The project co-ordinator of ADM 2000, Buruhani Nyenzi, said some 1.5 million US dollars was needed to upgrade or overhaul the systems under threat of the Millennium bug.

In trying to ensure that the agencies suffer no formidable threat of Y2K, further contacts have been made with the Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited, British Petroleum and the Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority in order to establish their progress in addressing Y2K compliance.

'It is extremely important that we know what the service providers are doing,' Nyenzi insisted.

The World Meteorology Organisation has, however, voluntarily promised to send in new equipment to replace the country's non-compliant ones, Tibaijuka said.

Other setbacks which project ADM 2000 has met included the lack of co- operation from manufacturers and suppliers who never disclosed the status of the equipment when purchased from them, Nyenzi said.

'Each agency is trying its level best to use the available meagre resources to do whatever they can to fix and procure some of the equipment,' he added.

The Tanzania Association of Tour Operators has said it is satisfied with what the government was doing to address Y2K.

The association's executive secretary, Mustapha Akunaayi, said that the government had assured tour operators in the country that the Y2K phenomena was being tackled with the urgency it required.

The association's concerns came as the International Air Transport Association warned some East African countries over Y2K compliance, saying the nations faced a boycott from its members from 31 December, if they did not submit data showing they were compliant.


Extract ID: 1459

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 December 16

Thousands Threatened With Acute Food Shortage In Tanzania

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency.

At least one million people are faced with an acute food shortage in Tanzania due to the prevailing dry spell in several regions of the country.

In Singida, at least 150,000 are in need of emergency food aid while the number is four times in Shinyanga. The acting Singida regional commissioner, Martin Mgongolwa said, a deficit of 9,500 tonnes of food is imminent.

In Shinyanga 158,000 tonnes of grain would have to be sent to boost the available 395,000 tonnes of food needed to sustain the region's 2.53 million inhabitants.

Mgongolwa told reporters that more than 156,000 people in 142 villages have been affected by the drought in Singida and needed an emergency food aid.

The region, where rainfall is extremely unreliable, received 13,000 tonnes of food from the World Food Programme in 1998 'but this ran out in March,' he added.

Shinyanga's regional commissioner, Tumainieli Kiwelu, said the drought in the region was as a result of an accumulated food shortage owing to unfavourable weather conditions since 1997.

'Given a good yield, Shinyanga farmers produce up to 80 percent of the total food requirements in the region,' he said.

The region has only received an average rainfall of 500 millimeters, which cannot sustain a maize yield. The food shortage in Shinyanga and Singida became certain when the Food and Agricultural Organisation indicated that Tanzania would be facing the hardship despite favourable rains.

The organisation's report indicated that Tanzania's total cereal production in 1999 would reach 3.76 million tonnes, which is lower than that of 1998 by 10 percent.

Other factors contributing to the precarious food situation include an attack of Army Worms in Morogoro, Arusha and Kilimanjaro.

Tanzania imported over 550,000 tonnes of cereals in 1998 to curb a looming food shortage.

But the food deficit could not be avoided in 1999 and the Economic Intelligence Unit noted that Tanzania needed to import 600,000 tonnes of cereals to meet the country's food demands.

FAO and the World Food Programme have said Tanzania's Strategic Grain Reserve lacks the capacity to meet emergency food needs, as stocks have been progressively depleted and maintained below target.

Extract ID: 1458

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 1999 December 20

Cellular Licence Issued To Vodacom Tanzania Limited

Dar Es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania - Vodacom Tanzania Ltd was issued a licence to operate a GSM cellular network by the Tanzania Communications Commission in Dar Es Salaam today, following the Commission's decision to award a GSM licence in July 1999.

Some $90 million will be invested in the new network during the first year of operations and 200 direct jobs are expected to be created within five years.

Tanzanian shareholders own 49% of the new cellular network, while South African company Vodacom Group (Pty) Ltd has a controlling interest of 51% and the Chairman's position. Mr. Andrew Mthembu, Managing Director of South African cellular network Vodacom (Pty) Ltd, will serve as Acting Chairman of Vodacom Tanzania Ltd.

Vodacom Tanzania Ltd expects to have covered the following areas in time for the Tanzanian General Election in October 2000: Dar Es Salaam, Morogoro, Dodoma, Tanga, Arusha, Moshi, Mwanza, Zanzibar, the International Airports in Dar Es Salaam, Kilimanjaro & Mwanza and the tourist areas of the Serengeti.

'Vodacom's network in South Africa was also launched to coincide with a General Election and there will be other similarities between the roll-out of the Vodacom Tanzania Ltd network in Tanzania and Vodacom's South African roll- out,' said Mr. Mthembu.

Mr. Mthembu said this was because the success story of GSM in South Africa had ensured that the South African GSM model was set to become a blueprint for the roll-out of GSM cellular networks across Africa.

'Vodacom Tanzania Ltd's licence conditions are also similar to those of Vodacom in South Africa. For example, Vodacom Tanzania Ltd has agreed to roll- out subsidised community phoneshops in Tanzania's poorest areas, as Vodacom has done in South Africa's underserviced areas.

Vodacom believes it makes sense for telecommunications in Africa to be provided by means of the latest GSM cellular technology, instead of through decades-old copper wire fixed-line technology. When the cost and time taken to lay cables in Africa's underserviced areas is taken into account, cellular makes more sense. Radio is expensive in terms of the initial set-up costs, however the roll-out can take place far quicker. Vodacom Tanzania Ltd's network infrastructure will be supplied by Siemens and Motorola.

'Vodacom Tanzania Ltd will be offering the latest products and services similar to those available in South Africa. This includes prepaid cellular, which we expect to be very successful owing to the cash nature of business conducted in Tanzania,' said Mr. Mthembu.

Vodacom Tanzania Ltd expects to attract some 100 000 customers by the end of the second year of operations. The company will be billing subscribers directly and going direct to market through dealers and wholly-owned stores.

Mr. Mthembu added that Vodacom is looking at all opportunities on the African continent which make economic sense. He said that the company already operates a GSM cellular network in Lesotho in partnership with the Lesotho Telecommunications Corporation.

'A small number of Vodacom employees will be dispatched to facilitate skills transfer, after which the majority of them will return to South Africa, leaving the day to day running of the network in the hands of Tanzanians. This will be a significant boost to the Tanzanian economy,' said Mr. Mthembu.

To illustrate, a study by the World Bank concluded that cellular telephony is an aid to development and a major boost to a developing economy. The World Bank study coincided with findings by international consultants BIS Macintosh, which showed that for every 100 000 cellular Telephone subscribers, 4 340 direct and indirect jobs are created.

Vodacom Tanzania Ltd will operate on the GSM 1800 Mhz and GSM 900 Mhz frequencies. There is presently only one GSM 900 Mhz cellular operator on the mainland of Tanzania and another which operates exclusively on the island of Zanzibar. Tanzania also has an analogue cellular network operator. There is also one government-owned fixed-line telecommunications operator. -0- Note to Editors: GSM Global System for Mobile Communications, the cellular standard employed by Vodacom in South Africa and some 300 cellular networks in 133 countries around the globe.

About Vodacom: Vodacom commenced commercial operations in 1994 and is currently valued at between R40 billion and R60 billion. Vodacom remains the leading GSM cellular network operator in South Africa and has a market share of 60%. The company delivers a service to some 2,6 million South Africans that is an integral part of their daily lives.

Vodacom's R9bn network currently handles 30% of the country's entire traffic volumes and 10% of the African continent's. The network consists of some 4 000 base stations, covers 13 000 km's of national roads, about 80% of the country's population and 52% of the total land surface.

Issued by: Ivan Booth Communications Consultant Vodacom Group Cell: +27 (0) 82 99 06 321 Dot Field Head of Public Relations Vodacom Group Cell: +27 (0) 82 99 00 174 On behalf of: Andrew Mthembu Managing Director Vodacom (Pty) Ltd


Extract ID: 1464

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 December 21

Tanzania To Celebrate Millennium Atop Mount Kilimanjaro

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency.

About 1,000 tourists plan to usher in their Millennium atop Mount Kilimanjaro, the Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism has confirmed.

Zakia Meghji said Monday the event will fetch the country some 1.5 million US Dollars (about 1.2 billion Tsh) in foreign currency.

Ten locals are also expected to go up the mountain during the 'Mount Kilimanjaro Top 2000 Expedition'.

The first batch of mountain climbers is to be flagged off next Monday and they will be awarded certificates as they descend 2 January, 2000. The excursions to Africa's highest mountain form part of the country's Millennium celebrations, whose climax will be marked in Dar Es Salaam.

Meghji said the mountain climbing fees had however been hiked by 100 percent to 100 US dollars in order to put off mass bookings due to contingency reasons and to ultimately guarantee the safety of the environment.

Security had been beefed up and rescue teams identified to ensure the safety of the Millennium celebrants, Meghji noted.

Another monumental event shall be the establishment of a Tanzania Millennium village next year in Dar Es Salaam, depicting the major historical, cultural, social and natural attractions available in the country, according to Meghji.

Other activities involve the planting of an estimated 20 million tree seedlings throughout the country, thus boosting by 20 percent the national target of planting 100 million trees by the end of 2000.

Tourism is Tanzania's second foreign exchange earner after agriculture. In 1997, it received 360,000 tourists, who generated 392.4 million US dollars.

In 1998, the World Tourism Organisation recorded that Tanzania ranked 11 among Africa's 20 top tourist destinations.

Most of the tourists come from Europe, the US, Japan, Korea and South Africa. The tourism sector employs 35,000 workers and it is growing at 11.4 percent while revenues are increasing at 23.3 percent annually.

Extract ID: 1463

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 December 22

Somali Bandits Resume Incursions Into Tanzania

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency.

A fresh wave of armed banditry has erupted in the northern Tanzanian town of Arusha. The bandits are believed to be members of the Somali community, reportedly from neighbouring Kenya.

They are said to be operating in liaison with local criminals in disrupting social harmony and throwing residents of the district into panic. The bandits ambushed and murdered the district police commander in August and came back two months later to massacre nine villagers, five days after President Benjamin Mkapa ordered the police force to rout them.

The police responded by killing eleven thugs, but those who escaped came back and served notice to the district commissioner saying they would come for his head no matter what or how long it took.

As a result, regional authorities are currently involved in training local guards in tactics aimed at stemming the Somali banditry.

The Monduli district commissioner, Abdallah Kihato, said the training, to be carried out by the Tanzanian military, will involve members of the Maasai community who inhabit the area.

Regional authorities are, therefore, co-operating with their Kenyan counterparts to stem the recurrent incursions.

'We need the co-operation of Kenyan authorities to corner these bandits,' Arusha Regional Commissioner Daniel Njoolay said.

He added that the region is also working on an operation called 'Operation Save Tourism' to net the bandits.

The operation will include regular police patrols in collaboration with rangers from the Tanzania National Parks.

Extract ID: 1462

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 3

Millennium Celebrants Die Scaling Kilimanjaro

Copyright (c) 2000 Panafrican News Agency

Two tourists died while scaling Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania during the Millennium celebrations.

Kilimanjaro National Park Chief Warden Lorivi-ole Moirana named the dead as Werner Hein, 55, from Germany, and Jennifer Steven, 54, from the US.

Hein died of a heart attack 31 December at the third cave point on the Rongai route while Steven died at the Uhuru peak at an altitude of 5,895 metre above sea level.

The two were part of a group of 1,154 revellers from the US, Germany, Britain, Japan, Australia, Switzerland, Brazil and South Africa who were destined to go up Africa's highest mountain to welcome the New Year.

At least 32 climbers had failed to reach the summit Sunday because they suffered injuries and had to be rescued by guides, Moirana said.

'Many of them were hit by heart problems, malaria and dehydration,' he added.

Tourists numbering 1,000 finished the climb and were accordingly awarded certificates.

Among them was Spanish Christina Abey, aged 11, and a South African, Goergette de Vos, aged 72.

Extract ID: 1471

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 3

Underdeveloped telecoms network, a barrier of internet connection

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency. Distributed via Africa News Online

The dominant barrier to growth of the Internet in Tanzania is underdeveloped telecoms net work, with its lack of Telephone lines, stakeholders in Tanzania says.

A current study found out that Telephone lines are highly inadequate with 50 per cent of those available found in Dar es Salaam and teledensity of one line for 2200 people in rural areas.

According to the managing Director of ISP Africa Online, Miss Lish Echaria lack of control over the infrastructure on which ISPs deliver their services was a big concern to her company.

She said mid last year the government had promised to create a conducive environment to allow them to expand to other areas.

'We also need financial support and tax breaks to go difficult markets,' she said so in Dar Es Salaam recently when explaining her company's move to deliver Internet services to rural areas.

A vigorous demand of access to the Internet (Net) and provision of related services is unfolding in Tanzania with about ten companies fiercely competing for the current limited client base.

Like the Internet Service Providers (ISP's)most of the Net customers in Tanzania are highly concentrated in Dar es Salaam. Cool Computing has found not. The number of Tanzanian Net users is currently put at 6000 of whom 80 per cent are within and around the three milliion populated-city-of Dar Es Salaam.

One of the six active ISPs in the country's is Cats-Net, which belongs to the CATS Group whose services range from sales of hardware and software, engineering and maintenance, software development to training.

Cats-Net was established three years ago and has connected over 1000 customers. It was expected to increase this base to over 2000 by end of 1999.

As part of our Internet services,Cats-Net offer unlimited Internet access, content comprising home page document, Internet setup/consultancy and Netfax. The latter is fax to fax service which officials say, it enable a customer to save up to approximately 75 per cent on all the long distance faxes via the internet.

Information Technology (IT)'s vendors in Dar es Salaam say they are ready to venture upcountry and start providing services there providing the government creates and enabling environment for such operations in rural areas.

The vendors made such obseveration recently at a round table with donor and the government when discussing issues on rural information and communication technologies (ICT's) whose theme was; ' Building bridges: Private sectors Partnerships to Extend ICTs to rural areas.'

The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Infotech Investment Group Ltd., Mr. Ali Mufuruki, says that the government must kick start process through the policy initiatives, investments in essential infrastructure and public education.

'Private sector will take over after viability of investment is assured, ' he said, adding that the government must work in partnership with the private sectors to establish sustainability of ICT services for rural communities.

Mr. Salim Musoma who is the permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Communication and Transport says that the fast growth of the IT sector in Tanzania could result in skewed development of communications services.

Authorities say that over 50 per cent of communications are concentrated in Dar es Salaam alone with only 20 per cent of telecoms services available for rural areas.

A survey conducted in the the county shows that over 57 per cent of computer in Tanzania are found in Dar Es Salaam which also account for 80 per cent of the country's 6000 Internet Service customers.

According to Mr. Musoma says the government is aware of the benefits of the ne ICTs and recognises the important role that the private sector can play towards their wider applicability and usage in the country.

On this regard, 'the government has decided to let the private sector be the engine of development in the communication sector and is keen to foster an enabling environment for the purpose,' he says.

Extract ID: 1470

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 7

A donkey is rapped in Maasai land

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Maasai elders of Mererani mining area in Simanjiro district in Arusha region, are terribly annoyed following reports that some eight young men in their neighborhood had rapped a donkey. Arusha is in Northern part of Tanzania and is a major tours city not only in East Africa, but in Africa too. Being the pastoralists, Maasai is a people lives in this region.

Donkeys mean a lot to the Maasai that what one can imagine. The animal is not only a domestic beast but also Olaisiayani, meaning faithful servant that should never be assaulted.

Presently, a number of Olmoruo-Maasai elders in the area where an act of unperceived shame took place are gripped with fear. The event is considered an abomonation that threatens prosperity of community life which might bring all kinds of misfortunes.

'Rapping a donkey? oh! no please.

These guys must be crazy. They should never be allowed to come back here. They have invited mishaps for our community,' bitterly complained Oltinga Olkimbei, 67, a resident of Mererani.

In May 25 last year it was reported to the surprise of many that eight young men at Block 'B' Mererani area in Arusha spent hours raping a donkey.

A the press visited the area to assess the after math of the incident. It (the press) encountered various groups of people and the minors.

It was learnt that a public condemnation of the deed has unanimously been given out all interview people irrespective of their age, faith or occupation have come to a common stand: All the involved boys are regarded as outcasts.

Although the alleged diddle were in remand prison pending hearing of their case, they would to serve another agreed sociable verdict-isolation.

The boys are alleged to have defamed both the minors and the Maasai community who consider themselves as the legitimate owners of all donkeys and cows in the world.

History books show that donkeys, mules and horses have been domesticated and have been on human service as early as 4,000 BC.

Olomoni Gahamedi and Naftari Ole Mondaine, chairman and secretary respectively of the commissioned local ant-scandal committee, told this reporter that the incident might have passed unnoticed had the committee no been formed two weeks earlier.

The ten member Maasai group popularly known as ngerine told the press that they were licensed when they discovered the culprits were not only engaged in fooling around with the 'servant' but injured her to make the animal succumb to their strange desires.

They brutally slashed ligaments of the near limbs of the animal and keep it immobile, complained Kunyae Melan, a vigilante.

Naramati Loilangishu, 56, said she was terribly worried that the strange occurrence in their land might lead to adversities such as leprosy, child mortality and blindness.

'We don't want to see these people in our midst, they have humiliated the whole of wana Apollo (the miners) community. Was it not possible for them to seek any of these women around here?,' complained Ndeso Mushi, a miner.

Anxiety that gripped the Maasai community as well as the minors was not baseless. Medical experts disclosed that mating with a donkey might have caused an infection that starts with itching in private parts and in most cases is resistant to ordinary antibiotics.

A medical expert told in Arusha that the boys faced a danger of contracting the devastating Brucellosis Bang's a STD common in donkeys, mules and horses, which becomes Malta fever when passed on to human beings through sexual contact.

According to the officer, at maturity stage, the disease causes all the sorts of complications in the reproductive system resulting in miscarriages, said Elisaria Mbise, a veterinary officer in Mererani.

The vet officer who examined the donkey and found human sperms mixed with the fluid (edema) said the chances of contriving the disease were double because the animal was at the height of the heat period when disaster struck.

He said during heat, the animal's genitals get a kind of blisters and sores and an accumulation of a fluid called adema which carries dangerous bacteria such as Brucella abortus, B. Melitensi or B. suis.

This development, said Mbise, is normally accompanied with loss of blood.

He said the condition is safe as far as other animals are concerned, but quite dangerous when a human being gets involved.

Report from the nearest police posts at 'Zaire' a village about 2 kilometers west of the mining site explained that the boys were charged with having sex the donkey and caused serious injury that caused death to the anima.

Extract ID: 1477

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 7

Tourism fastest growing industry in Tanzania

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Tourism has been Tanzania's fastest growing sector in the past three years. Tourism figures show that about 480,000 tourists were received in the 1998/1999 financial year in Tanzania, a far cry from the 180,000 figure of 1991/1992.

Earnings from the sector rose from USD 94.7 million in 1991/1992 to over USD 515 million in 1998/1999. More than 30,000 Tanzanians have been employed in the sector. In last financial year (1998/1999) tourism accounted for 16.5 percent of GDP, higher than 7.5 percent in 1995/1996.

It is expected to be the sector whose steady growth will create more jobs and increase income this century, according to analysts.

The government is implementing the new national tourism policy that encourages people to invest in the industry and an integrated tourism master plan intending to guard tourism activities and development in the country.

According Mr. Ole Naiko, director of investment at the Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC), from 1990 to June last year, a total of 190 tourism projects have been approved by his centre, which is the government's agency for promoting investment.

However, despite the achievement, observer sees several challenges facing the industry in the new millennium as a business itself is so complex and delicate, touching almost every aspect of human and natural life. They want issues like poaching in the parks be controlled. The Kilimanjaro Park's Chief warden, Mr. Lorivi Ole Moirana says that last September 26 suspected poachers were arrested at the Park. 'Poachers and gangsters are threatening people and wildlife, properties and being destroyed and stolen,' he laments.

He want apart from intensifying security, infrastructure be developed to support the sector. However, the United States Agency for International Organization (USAID) has provided equipment worth 643,413 USD to help improve roads in national parks in the country.

The assistance coming as part of the Partnership Options for Resources use Innovation (PORI) project, being implemented by the African Wildlife Foundation.

An assistance goes to develop the infrastructure, which, according to Dr.

James Kahurananga, a PORI's senior project officer, finances various activities in the sector. All infrastructure is based on design guidelines prepared with assistance from the US Department of Interior (DOI), one of the partners in the project. The assistance goes to the Tarangire and Lake Manyara national parks, in the northern part of Tanzania.

The two were in last year expected to receive about 55,000 tourists each, about 10 percent of them Americans.

The arrival of the arrival of the tourists is expected to earn the two parks an income of about US $ 2.5 million.

Extract ID: 1473

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 10

Cites ban on ivory business: elephant population increases in Tanzania

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Tanzania's elephant population has increased over the past nine years rendering the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the leading protected area with the largest number of elephants in the world.

Basing on the research by the Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI), Ms Anne Lema of the institute of education in Tanzania, says until October last year the elephant population in the reserve stood at about 60,000 from 35,000 in 1990.

Accordingly, Lema says the figure was 110,000 in 1976 down to 60,000 in 1986, partly due to Poaching incidences. In the reserve (SGR), and some other protected areas, the elephant population was reduced to as much as 25 percent, while in some was completely wiped out, she says.

Ms Lema says that an aerial survey taken in most parts of the country shows increasing population trends in the areas and even re-colonization of areas where they have been wiped out.

Up until 1950s, elephants inhabited almost 90 percent of the Tanzania Mainland, and by the 1980s their range had shrunk to less than 50 percent of the country, mostly in the Southern part of the country.

The increase in elephant population, according to TAWIRI is attributed to good management plans instituted by the government and the international community in the early, 1990s.

The internal management measures include the elephant conservation programme carried out on a country-wide basis in 1990 and the operation, 'Life' in which many poachers were arrested and large number of weapons used to kill animals were confiscated.

Loss of habital due to the growing human population is also a threat to the elephants.

'While Tanzania's human population stood at 13 million in 1974, it is over 30 million today, posing a situation where man sometimes encroaches on the bests habital,' says the TAWIRI.

The international dimension, according to the research is the ban on ivory under the Conventional International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora, CITES, of 1988. Trade in products of the elephant was put in appendix I of the CITES in 1989 which demands that any trade of the animal or part of its body be banned.

Most African countries which had lost significant number of elephants, including Tanzania, subscribed to the terms of CITES. But Botswana, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Cameroon, Congo, Mozambique and Gabon voted against the ban stating that they did not consider their elephant populations were threatened with extinction.

But it was recently established in Tanzania that hunting of elephants have started and in the stocks there are several tonnes of ivory which the government plan to sell them. Already Japan has shown its interest to purchase them.


Extract ID: 1476

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 14

Geologists from around the world will meet in Arusha

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Geologists from around the world will meet in Arusha Tanzania and the Tanzania Geological Society (TGS) has said preparations for the meeting have reached an advanced stage.

Called annual general conference, 'Geo Tech 2000', its scheduled on 20th to 24 June, this year.

Mr. Yete Mwalyego, the TGS President says over 13 countries at least from each continent would take part at the conference to take place at the East African Community Conference center, in Arusha Tanzania.

Given a theme, 'The development of Earth Resources in East Africa and the Challenges faced in the new millennium, have attracted regional states in eastern and southern Africa, which Mr. Mwalyego, says all have shown their interest to participate.

Other countries expected to take part, according to Mr. Mwalyego include Madagascar, Seychelles, Ghana, Ethiopia, Egypt, Egypt, USA, Canada, Canada, Australia, and Britain.

To be discussed include aspects like integrated and sustainable techniques for the development, management of earth resources, women's participation and opportunities in mineral industry in East Africa, sustainable development and management of ground water and fossil fuel.

It is during this conference, Mwalyego says, Tanzania will take an opportunity to promote her minerals sector and their familiarization with petroleum essentials found in many parts of the country.

The conference comes at the time when studies by Tanzania's Ministry of Minerals reveal that three third of Tanzania posses at least one type of mineral.

It is believed also that following on-going intensive investment in mining sector in the country, Tanzania will be a third top country in Africa in terms of minerals production after South Africa and Nigeria.

Meanwhile. The UN Secretary General, Mr. Kofi Annan, is among the distinguished people who will address a two week assemblage of 250 scholars from around the world scheduled in September in Dar Es Salaam.

Ms Agripina Gerald said in Dar Es Salaam that the participants of the meeting would dwell on finding solution to hurdles which endanger the world and its team members.

According to her, Mr. Annan would present a paper which expresses the steps taken by United Nations in making sure that peace tranquillity persists.

Also to take part, according to her, is the Secretary General of the Organization, Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim who would speak on the importance of wiping out debts owed by African countries, South Africa Bishop Desmond Tutu, on a needy of unity in building peace and tranquillity while President Mkapa will exemplify the Tanzania's efforts to bring peace in the Great Lakes Region.

Extract ID: 1474

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 January 14

Historical sites in Tanzania on verge of collapse

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Although the Minister for Tourism and Natural Resources Zakia Meghji witnessed more than 2000 tourists delight in Tanzania's natural heritage in the Mount Kilimanjaro Top 2000 Expedition, ancient sites with similar potential lay unattended.

Trusted with preserving Tanzania's cultural heritage, the department of antiquities under Minister Meghji is grossly under-staffed and under-funded.

'If we want to improve the department we must have the new approach,' says Mr. Donatus Kamamba, the acting director of antiquities.

He says despite the fact that the department has 117 sites to view all over the country, it has 63 workers only, mostly supporting staff.

According to him, not more than 10 are qualified individuals who can stay at a station and map out the strategies for development of the traditional legacy they are trusted to preserve.

'In the whole of Tanzania for example, there are only three qualified Architectural conservators, that is experts who deal with maintenance and preservation of old buildings,' says Mr. Kamamba, adding, 'at the department's headquarters in Dar Es Salaam, there is only one vehicle.'

He adds, the modest USD 30,000 budget the department projected last year to maintain all its stations was 'very moderate intended'

'At present the antiquities department is regarded as a unit, meant for serving a small area, which means that we get less staff, less facilities and less fund,' he laments.

Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, to market Tanzania's attractions in oversees, there is no similar efforts being made to invest in the sector.

On his observation, a successful Mount Kilimanjaro Expedition, in which the Kilimanjaro National Park had pumped in USD 375, 000 equivalent in extensive preparations that has enabled it to net USD 750000, need to be replicated by other organizations.

The director says over 117 stations, only about 20 had at least enough staff and were attended to, with the rest either under-staffed or languishing unattended.

Kamamba notes that at present, the repair of the stations has been going on at the snails pace - about one station each year - due to lack of funds.

'At this rate, it will take almost 117 years to maintain all of them,' he says.

Among the transferred departments are the National Museum, the Antiquities Department, National Archives, Film Censorship Board, National Sports Council and National Art Council.

He alleges that his antiquities department has been marginalised while under the education ministry, for instance, in the budgets of the ministry from 1993 to 1998, 'no mention has been made of providing the department with workers and facilities.'

'Tourists cannot pay money to go to a place if it has no facilities,' he says, adding, 'There is basically no difference in natural heritage and cultural heritage in their potential for tourism.'

As tourists still stream towards Mount Kilimanjaro and to National Parks in the country, historical sites in Bagamoyo, Kilwa and many other parts in the country are, according to Mr. Kamamba, on the verge of total decline, he says.

Officials from the Tanzania Tourism Board and the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, have since 1997 been visiting various countries, mainly Canada, USA, Japan and Korea, to market the country's tourism products.

In Tanzania, the tourism sector is among the fastest growing and earners of sizable income, but receive less in terms of investment and incentives. (words 557)


Extract ID: 1475

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 April 19

Somali Bandits Struck Again In Northern Tanzania


Efforts by Tanzania and Kenya to strengthen security around their boarders following the murderous organized killings by Somali Bandits with high calibre weapons, appear to be completely helpless.

Somali Bandits continue to threaten lives of Maasai people in northern Tanzania and it has been reported that Digodigo village in Loliando in Arusha region was attached on Sunday. Two villagers were killed in the attack and several others were injured. According to the Arusha Regional Police Commander (RPC), Juma Ng'wanang'waka, the incident occurred at Maloni area where the mob attacked a car which was going to the auction.

For more than three years, the Somali Bandits have been launching attacks on villages in northern Tanzania, especially areas cross to the border of Kenya and Tanzania. In last week, the policemen from the two countries signed a pact to intensify the joint security operations along their common boarders.

Tanzanian police officers meet with their counterparts in Nairobi and had signed a security pact. The pact comprised negotiation on how they could work together to crack down on drug traffickers, bandits and other criminals, mobs who drive stolen vehicles across the boarders, among others.

They agreed to strengthen security operations along the south western boarder of the two countries.

Early last month a team of the Field Force Unit (FFU) was dispatched by air and road in Ngorongoro district in Arusha to hunt for several armed Somali Bandits who killed a pastor. The Pastor, Mr. John Majoel of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania (ELCT) was shot to death on his back after he allegedly refused to get out of his car, Toyota Land Cruiser. The Pastor was traveling with four European Missionaries to Ngorongoro, one of the famous Tanzania's National Park, on routine pastoral work. According to information reached the media in Dar Es Salaam, after killing the pastor, the armed Somali drove away with the Europeans and abandoned them and the car in the bush some 20 kilometers from the scene area. Authorities in Arusha Region had suggested the deployment of an army unit in Ngorongoro District to curb constant attacks mounted by the Somali Bandits.

Arusha Regional Commissioner Daniel ole Njoolay convened an emergency meeting of the regional defense and security committee where he suggested the option of military intervention against the attacks.

He said the endless attacks by the Somali cattle rustlers since 1998 who have killed at least a dozen people and robbed millions of shillings from residents of the region. Two years ago, Somali Bandits murdered the Ngorongoro District Commanding Officer, SSP Issaya Kong'oa, and about 10 Maasai tribesmen.

Extract ID: 1491

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 May 22

Germany Tour Operators Visits Tanzania

Dar Es Salaam - Tanzania will by the end of this year receive a total of 500,000 tourists from all over the world, the Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ms. Zakia Meghji has told the visiting tour operators from Germany.

Speaking to eleven top tour operators from Germany who arrived here over the weekend, Ms Meghji said that increased of tourists in this year followed last year's campaigns conducted in various countries by the government to market Tanzania. In last year President Mkapa led a delegation in United States and Sweden to market Tanzania in areas of tourism and investment in general. The touring delegation have been invited by the Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB) and they are visiting tourist attractions in the northern circuit of Tanzania to assess potential resources which exist in the area.

According to the TTB branch controller in Arusha region, Ms. Mary Lwoga, the visiting tour operators would later promote Tanzania's attractions in Germany and other parts of Europe. In 1998 Tanzania received 22,000 tourists from Germany and the number increased to 25,000 in last year. Ms.

Lwoga said that about 30,000 tourists from Germany were expected to visit Tanzania this year. She said the invitation was part of the country's new strategies to market Tanzania in Europe and according to her, Tanzania's participation in the Annual Berlin International Tourism Exhibition has contributed significantly to attract tourists from Europe. Tourism is one of the upcoming promising industries in Tanzania. For several years Tanzania has developed and marketed less that 50 percent of her tourist potentials.

Most of the active tourist active areas, has been northern part of the country, leaving southern part undeveloped. Since three years ago the government has taken initiatives to take both internal and international campaigns to promote the sector, including attending international tour promotional forums, whose results have started to be seen. According to the ministry of Natural resources and Tourism, earnings from the tourism sector has surpassed by Tshs2.7 billion more in last year.

In last year the government was realized a total of Tshs11.2 billion from the projection of shillings 8.5 billion. The number of tourists increased to over 627,000 in 1999 from 482,331 in 1998. Tanzania is among the top three tourist destination in Africa. In 1998 Tanzania received 482, 331 tourists and ranked fifth in tourism earnings in the continent.

South Africa received 5, 981, 000 and ranked first among 20 tourist destinations in Africa. The visiting delegation represent the following companies; Reisezeit Touristik (Berlin), Ethiopia Airlines (Frankfurt), Ministerk Reisen (Berlin), Jambo Tanzania Reisen (Sundern), Safari Reisen (Berlin), Hauser Excursionen (Munich), Globertrotter Reisen (Munich), Frosch Touristik (Munich), Into Africa Reisen (Nuernberg), Chameleon Reisen (Berlin) and Moewe Jonathan Bildungsreisen (Frunckfurt). The visiting delegation is being collaborated by the Tanzanian counterparts organizations which include, Tanzania National Parks, Ethiopian Airlines, Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, Momella Wildlife Lodge, Tarangire Safari Lodge, and Tanzania Hotelliers.

Extract ID: 1500

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 June 5

18 FFU Injured In Hunting Somali Bandits

TOMRIC Agency, Dar Es Salaam

About 18 policemen on the mission to hunt notorious Somali Bandits in Northern Tanzania have serious injured in a motor accident along the boarder with Kenya.

The Acting Arusha Regional Police Commander, ACP Wenceslaus Magoha said yesterday here that the accident which occurred at Namanga in Monduli District on Saturday morning, involved the Field Force Officers.

According to him the police were driving in a vehicle, STG 897 to Kimbeine village to hunt Somali bandit following a tip that the trouble makers and notorious killers, Somali Bandits were in the village. He told the press that the conditions of 10 policemen including the Namamga Officer Commanding Station (OCS), Duwan Nyanda, were serious injured and were being hospitalized at the regional Mount Meru Hospital.

'All the policemen were from the Field Force Unit (FFU) and they were on their way to hunt the bandits,' he said. The accident which occurred after the vehicle overturned few kilometers from Namanga after it's driver, Corporal Gabriel failed to control the vehicle, now adds to almost three accidents for the period of 40 days in Tanzania.

At least 18 people have died from these accidents which occurred in various places of the country. Efforts by Tanzania and Kenya to strengthen security around their boarders to arrest Somali Bandits with high calibre weapons, appear to be completely ineffective.

In last month some seven armed Somalis raided Masaai tribesmen at Kitumbaine in Ngorongoro district and stole about Tshs2.8 million. Maasai people were raided as they were on the way to Monduli district for an auction mart.

Being ex-solders with sub machine guns, Somali Bandits fired gun shoots to the air which scarred Maasai people who were in a lorry, and stole apart from money, several properties and other belongings whose amount could not be established. Somali Bandits continue to threaten lives of Maasai people in northern Tanzania.

Digodigo village in Loliando in Arusha region was attached mid April. During that incident two villagers were killed and several others were injured.

For more than three years now, the Somali Bandits have been launching attacks on villages in northern Tanzania, especially areas cross to the border of Kenya and Tanzania. In March a team of the FFU was dispatched by air and road in Ngorongoro District to hunt for several armed Somali Bandits who killed a pastor.

The Pastor, Mr. John Majoel of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania (ELCT) was shot to death on his back after he allegedly refused to get out of his car, Toyota Land Cruiser.

The Pastor was traveling with four European Missionaries to Ngorongoro, one of the famous Tanzania's National Park, on routine pastoral work. In April this year, the policemen from Kenya and Tanzania signed a pact to intensify the joint security operations along their common boarders, but their effort is unfruitful.

Residents suggest the deployment of an army unit to curb constant attacks mounted by the Somali Bandits in the area. Suggestions follows the endless attacks which since 1998 have killed at least a dozen people and robbed millions of shillings from residents in the region.

Two years ago, Somali Bandits murdered the Ngorongoro District Commanding Officer, SSP Issaya Kong'oa, and about 10 Maasai tribesmen. Residents in the area want the government to deploy the arm, but the government is still reluctant to implement the idea.

'The killings of residents in Ngorongoro district by armed bandits does not warrant the deployment of the army,' so says the Minister for Home Affairs, Mohammed Seif Khatib. Khatib says the number of Tanzanians killed by Somali Bandits was still small if deaths in other parts of the Tanzania were taken into considerations.

The army will normally be deployed if there was tension between one nation and the other, he says, urging that the police force will continue to provide security along the common boarder with Kenya. The residents say that Police have failed to provide security in the area, as Somalis were armies with advanced fighting tactics.

Extract ID: 1505

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 June 5

Wildlife Policy To Benefit Local Communities

Panafrican News Agency

Frequent acrimony, currently depicting the relationship between game Hunting companies and rural communities in Tanzania, will be a thing of the past after the government adopts a new wildlife policy.

Designated as wildlife management areas, the communities will benefit from the spoils of game Hunting, presently paid to local authorities by companies operating in those areas.

The proposed policy seeks to amend Tanzania's obsolete Wildlife Act of 1975, and, according to the natural resources and tourism minister, Zakia Meghji, 'it is of utmost priority and should be tabled before parliament for debate soon'.

She said the government would repossess all Hunting blocks allocated to professional hunters and hand them over to respective local authorities.

In turn local governments, together with the communities, would be empowered to allocate the Hunting blocks to whichever company they prefer to do business with.

'Guidelines of the policy are ready and are just being fine-tuned,' she said.

Communities set to benefit from this policy are chiefly those bordering rich game controlled areas and parks. They include the Maasai, Ndorobo, Hadzabe, Bahi, Sianzu and Kimbu in northeastern Tanzania.

Members of these communities are often arrested by game wardens and fined for trespassing on game conservation areas. As a result, they have been extremely bitter about being denied access to wildlife resources, which they believe, naturally, belong to them.

Under the new policy, Meghji said, the government will ensure that people undertake increased wildlife management responsibilities and get benefits to motivate them in the conservation of wildlife resources.

Extract ID: 1504

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Africa News Online,
Extract Date: 2000 July 28

Tanzanian Security Forces Repulse Somali Bandits

Copyright (c) 2000 Panafrican News Agency. Distributed via Africa News Online (

Tanzanian security forces have beaten off Somali Bandits whose attacks in the northern region of Arusha have left scores of people dead and disrupted economic activities in the area.

Regional Commissioner Daniel ole Njoolay told PANA the security forces had been working together with the local militia, popularly known as 'mgambo'.

Military personnel were expected in the region to strengthen the security detail, Njoolay added. The region has important tourist spots and national parks teeming with wildlife.

Defence minister Edgar Maokola-Majogo recently told parliament that the military would be detailed in the region in order to end the Somali banditry once and for all.

'I would like to ensure Monduli and Ngorongoro district residents that this problem will be terminated,' he said, adding that the military had information of a detailed insurgency by Somali Bandits.

The bandits were suspected to have been launching their attacks from the Kenyan side around Kajiado town and the two Tanzanian districts were the most vulnerable because of their proximity to the border.

Tanzanian forces took long to subdue the attacks reportedly due to collaboration between segments of the local population and the Somali Bandits.

'But now the residents have been very helpful in flushing out the bandits,' Njoolay said.

More than 100 suspected bandits have been rounded up since 1999 by security forces in Kenya and Tanzania in a bid to identify and prosecute the real culprits.

Extract ID: 1514

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Africa News Online,
Extract Author: Kipkoech Tanui
Extract Date: 2000 September 3

When Clinton Seized Arusha

The Nation (Nairobi)

President Benjamin Mkapa stared in disbelief as US security agents opened the doors of the sleek limousine from which he had just disembarked to let in a a sniffer dog hunting for any 'hidden' bombs and grenades.

As the Tanzanian leader stood on the front steps of the Arusha International Conference Centre - ready to receive American President Bill Clinton and usher him into the hall where the Burundi Peace Accords were being signed on Monday - the American agents opened the boots and bonnets of his convoy and goaded the furred animal to sniff around for explosives.

Hundreds of Tanzanians hanging around the perimeter fence of the building watched with a mixture of amusement and embarrassment as the American agents meticulously searched the area for any danger to their President.

'Umaskini ni kitu mbaya mno' (poverty is a terrible thing), mused one of the Tanzanians pushing and elbowing each other around the barbed wire - in a bid to get a better glimpse of Mr. Clinton - when he noticed what the American security agents were doing to his President's car. 'It's amazing how far the Americans can go in throwing their weight and money around Africa,' the Tanzanian national added.

Mr. Mkapa, who was hosting the US President and at least 20 other African leaders or their representatives, was also in for a rude shock when he chaperoned Mr. Clinton to his seat, escorted by the facilitator of the peace talks, retired South African President Nelson Mandela.

Moments before President Clinton walked in, the mineral water and soda bottles on his table were cleared by the security agents. When President Clinton took his seat, an aide placed before him a can of Coca-Cola flown in from the US. The President drank directly from the can.

That was to be the only drink he took inside the hall for the five hours he was inside as the rest of the dignitaries on the podium - including President Moi and Mr. Mandela - sipped glasses of water bottled by a Tanzanian company.

Earlier, as Mr. Clinton's convoy arrived at the Arusha International Conference Centre (AICC), a US helicopter was hovering over his car flying barely 30 metres above the ground. The chopper carrying heavily armed security agents had covered President Clinton's car all the way from the Kilimanjaro International Airport, taking every bend and corner with it.

Outside the conference centre, the helicopter hovered above Mr. Clinton as he disembarked from his car, greeted his hosts and entered the hall. The deafening noise and gushing wind from helicopter engines and rotor blades fluttered at the clothes of those present, at times exposing the firearms stuffed on the waists of some of the security agents.

All the tinted windows of President Clinton's 35-foot limousine were rolled up and the occupants waved to the ecstatic crowd behind closed windows. A Tanzanian security official told the Sunday Nation that an hour before his landing, the flight corridor over Arusha was closed.

With his arrival, most of the telephone lines around Arusha went dead. Even the walkie-talkies the security personnel of the African leaders were carrying ceased to work. But when he left the phones came back to life.

A source in the meeting said the security agents jammed the phones to abort any evil plot being hatched over the the lines and ensure total security and safety for the leader of the world's only superpower.

As a result of the electronic jamming of the phones, the State House team waiting for President Moi to land at the Moi International Airport Mombasa lost telephone contact with the security personnel in Arusha led by the Escort Commander and the President's aide-de-camp.

The security personnel in Arusha could not inform those waiting on the Mombasa airport's tarmac that the haggling between the Burundi Accord facilitators and the Tutsi extremists had prolonged the meeting and that the President was still inside the Simba Hall four hours after the meeting was expected to have been concluded.

In desperation, a senior State House official at the airport decided to call the Nation News Desk in Nairobi and enquire if the night shift reporter had received a word on the whereabouts of the President from our reporter in Arusha.

By 10 pm that Monday night, the official had called the Nation twice within an hour to say the team in Mombasa were anxious to know if the President had left Arusha.

Though he promised to call again at 11 pm, he did not, probably because telephone contact with Arusha had finally been re-established. However, a member of the President's press corps kept calling.

President Moi and his entourage finally flew out of Kilimanjaro International Airport after midnight for Mombasa, where in the morning he was on the road continuing his tour of the Coast Province.

A South African female journalist working for Channel Africa broke down inside the Arusha conference hall when the US marines barred her from leaving the theatre while President Clinton was speaking. She had wanted to look for a convenient place outside from which to call her station on the mobile telephone.

She thought that her phone set had ceased working because she was in an enclosed place. But as she rose to walk out, a US agent walked up to her and curtly said the doors won't be opened until the visiting President leaves the hall.

However, the marines changed their minds and decided to open the doors for people to walk in and out as it turned out that Mr. Clinton was going to spend a much longer period inside the hall.

The secret service agents could be identified using their hi-tech communication equipment composed of a wire running from the ear up to the left hand where a miniature microphone, the size of a sweet, was strapped to the arm. When they wanted to talk to one another, one just needed to open his palm and lift his hand as if to wipe his lips.

Except for Mr. Mandela's guards, all the security men accompanying the visiting Presidents carried walkie-talkies, which ceased working for the duration of Mr. Clinton's presence in the hall.

The US agents had began streaming into Tanzania months before Mr. Clinton was set to arrive, flying straight from Nigeria on his last African tour as President. By 2.50 pm, when he landed at the Kilimanjaro International Airport, more than 1,000 Americans - mostly security and secret service agents and the State Department staff - were swarming the streets of Arusha.

The marines and Federal Bureau of Investigation agents had revolvers bulging from their waistlines and covered by immaculate jackets.

The agents arrived with communication and security equipment, such as satellite dishes and antennas, weighing five tonnes. They scanned the runway as if they were looking for landmines.

The President and his daughter Chelsea rode in the long limousine, which can withstand the devastating impact of a mine explosion. The limousine was flown in from the US together with ambulances and other cars in a convoy of more than 50 vehicles.

The convoy had earlier been flown from the US to the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, and then driven by road - under heavy guard - for the 260 kilometres to Arusha. A similar security arrangement had been made for his visit to arathing was done for his Nigeria, and the visit to Egypt after he flew from Arusha aboard the luxurious Airforce One jet.

The plane itself is a magnificent piece of technology, complete with a parachute ejector to throw the President out to safety should there be any midair problem. It is furnished like a millionaire's house, complete with sauna, jacuzzi and a luxury bed.

As part of the security arrangements, all business outlets on the multi-storey AICC were closed on Monday. Notices to this effect were pasted on the walls and lift-area of the prestigious building from the Thursday before.

The US had negotiated expensive temporary takeover deals with owners of businesses on the basement, ground and first floors of the building. The rooms were stripped bare of the old furniture and transformed into offices, fax and e-mail bureaus and video-monitoring stations.

On the premises of the popular Arusha fastfood chain, Chick King - whose expansive room at the AICC was temporarily taken over - a host of telephone sets with a satellite connection to America were installed for use by the security agents, White House staff and the American press.

The other sections of the international press were frustrated when they walked up to the bureau thinking the business centre was open to all. 'They paid me upfront and I can't allow anyone else to use these facilities. They put up some of the machines themselves,' was the consistent reply the proprietor had for those seeking his services.

The US marines thoroughly screened anyone entering the premises, using bomb detectors. Those carrying still cameras had to click at least once - just to make sure that its trigger does not detonate a hidden bomb. Those with video cameras were asked to roll at least an inch of their tape before they could be allowed in.

In a hurry to impress the visiting leaders, especially Mr. Clinton, the Tanzanian government cleared the Arusha streets of hawkers and street children. On the morning of the big day, the town's fire brigade personnel, with their engines, washed the streets with water and soap.

Motorists were splashed with water sprouting from the huge canons normally used to fight fires.

The AICC itself was given a thorough wash. Throughout the weekend, workers scraped the floors with detergent and water. The floors were groomed, the walls stripped clean of any old notices pasted on them.

The meeting stole the thunder from the climax of the Tanzanian voter registration programme ending that Monday. The local media devoted its time and space to the Burundi meeting.

The Tanzanian government took advantage of Mr. Clinton's visit to promote its commercial ties with America. The Commerce Ministry published a glossy magazine titled: Ten Reasons Why Americans Should Invest In Tanzania.

The visiting Americans - even the secret agents - were given copies as they picked the keys to their hotel rooms from the receptionists.

In the airport and around the luxurious Novotel Mount Meru Hotel, where the security agents had pitched camp a week to the meeting, a forest of long antennae rose to the sky. Satellite dishes mounted on armoured cars dotted the premises.

The hotel was the base for the security agents and regular guests were kept off because all the rooms had been taken up. Only a few were reserved for the other visiting presidents and delegates. Mr. Clinton did not step in the hotel, on whose doors were mounted hi-tech security screen boxes.

The accreditation process for Simba Hall was a long and tedious affair. The lobbying for the pink badges issued by a team of facilitators led by Brig-Gen (Rtd) Hashim Mbita was as intense as it was frustrating.

In the end, more than 250 journalists who had travelled to Arusha to cover the meeting did not go in. Those locked out included such big news organisations such as Reuters.

Things were made worse by the fact that none of the Tanzanian TV stations had the capacity to relay the proceedings live.

The White House had arranged for the American NBC Television - which had the brief to beam live Mr. Clinton's speech to all the American stations via satellite - to bring in the necessary equipment.

But it turned out that the equipment was not compatible with Tanzania's and the plan flopped. An attempt to use the outside broadcasting facilities of the UN's Rwanda Genocide Tribunal flopped because the wiring was short and the cameras were permanently mounted on the court-house in the AICC.

In the end, journalists who flew in from as far as Europe with huge caches of communication equipment were either reduced to mere by- standers or covered the event from the periphery. Those in the print media mingled freely with the flag-waving Tanzanians who lined the streets to welcome the bigwigs.

The other Presidents inside the hall had to make do without the bulk of their security team because most of their agents could not obtain the badges to enter Simba Hall.

As Mr. Clinton stepped in, his security agents lined all the walls of the hall and when he finally sat, two of them sat on the extreme left and right corners of the front bench reserved for the Presidents.

An hour before Mr. Clinton's arrival, the agents shuffled the seating arrangements on the podium when the African leaders took a break. When they came back they were shown new places to sit.

However, during the Burundi peace negotiations, Mr. Clinton left his chair next to Mr. Mandela and moved from one seat to another talking to the African Presidents. He spent considerable time talking to Ghana's Jerry Rawlings.

But he reserved the best of his warmth for Mr. Mandela, whom he embraced as he bade him bye inside the hall. To the other leaders, he gave a handshake.

Extract ID: 1524