World History at KMLA

Book ID 627

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 02a

Tanganyika 1815-1886

Tanganyika as a geographical and political entity did not take shape before the period of High Imperialism; it's name only came into use after GERMAN EAST AFRICA was transferred to Britain as a mandate by the League of Nations in 1920. What is referred to here therefore is the history of the region that was to become Tanganyika.

In 1698 and again in 1725 the Omanis had ousted the Portuguese from the trading ports on East Africa's coast, most notably from Kilwa and Zanzibar. During the 18th century, Zanzibar had emerged as the dominant port of the region. Trade in general had prospered, a chain of coastal trading towns, among them TANGA and BAGAMOYO, had emerged. Bagamoyo means 'throw your heart away'; it was a port from where slaves were shipped.

In 1841, Sultan SAYYID SAID moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar; with him came many Arabs who invigorated the economy. In 1856, the Sultanate of Zanzibar was separated from the Sultanate of Oman; to Zanzibar belonged the island of Pemba as well as the coastal lands, including Kilwa. Arab traders established caravan routes into the interior, facilitating trades; the camel provided transportation. Slaves were among the most profitable trading goods.

The port of Zanzibar was visited by Dutch, English and French ships. The British East India Company had a representative on Zanzibar, who acted as an advisor to the sultan. In 1873 a British fleet forced Sultan Barghash to declare slave trade ended. An illegal slave trade continued.

In 1848 the German missionary JOHANNES REBMANN 'discovered' Mount Kilimanjaro; in 1858 BURTON and SPEKE 'discovered' Lake Tanganyika.

In 1877 the first of a series of Belgian expeditions arrived on Zanzibar. In the course of these expeditions, in 1879 a station was founded in KAREMA on the eastern bank of Lake Tanganyika, soon to be followed by the station of MPALA on the opposite western bank. Both stations were founded in the name of the COMITE D'ETUDES DU HAUT CONGO, a predecessor organization of the Congo Free State. The fact that this station had been established and supplied from Zanzibar and Bagamoyo lead to the inclusion of East Africa into the territory of the CONVENTIONAL BASIN OF THE CONGO at the BERLIN CONFERENCE of 1885.

At the conference table in Berlin, contrary to widespread perception, Africa was not partitioned; rather rules were established amongst the colonial powers and prospective colonial powers as how to proceed in the establishment of colonies and protectorates. While the Belgian interest soon concentrated on the Congo River, the British and Germans focussed on Eastern Africa and in 1886 partitioned continental East Africa amongst themselves; the Sultanate of Zanzibar, now reduced to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, remained independent, for the moment.

The Congo Free State was eventually to give up it's claim on Karema (it's oldest station in Central Africa) and on any territory to the east of Lake Tanganyika, to Germany.

Extract ID: 3480

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 03a

German East Africa 1886-1918

TANGANYIKA as a geographical and political entity did not take shape before the period of High Imperialism; it's name only came into use after German East Africa was transferred to Britain as a mandate by the League of Nations in 1920. What is referred to here therefore is the history of the region that was to become Tanganyika.

German CARL Peters had secured treaties with tribal leaders on East Africa's coast, providing the German government with legitimation to negotiate with Britain over spheres of interest in East Africa. In the treaty of 1886, Germany renounced it's claims on the WITU AREA (on Kenya's coast, north of Mombasa) and on Uganda, and Britain recognized Germany's claim to what was to become German East Africa. In another treaty of 1890, Germany traded the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba for the much smaller island of Heligoland, off Germany's coast in the North Sea. The Germans bought off the Sultan of Zanzibar's rights to the Tanganyikan coast for $ 800,000.

The German East Africa COMPANY (founded 1887, succeeded by the German government in 1891) established BAGAMOYO as their colony's capital, soon moving it to DARESSALAAM. The colony was called DEUTSCH-OSTAFRIKA (German East Africa). The colony's borders had been established in treaties with Britain (Kenya, Uganda, Northern Rhodesia), Belgium (Belgian Congo) and Portugal (Mocambique); interests of the indigenous people were disregarded. From the coast, the Germans penetrated the country and established their rule. The currency was 1 Rupia = 64 Pesa.

Extract ID: 3481

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 03f
Extract Date: 1886-1918

German East Africa 1886-1918: Deutsch Ostafrika's Governors

1885-1888 Carl Peters, administrator

1888-1891 Hermann von Wissmann, Reichskommissar

1891-1893 Julius von Soden

1893-1895 Friedrich Radbod von Schele

1895-1896 Hermann von Wissmann

1896-1901 Eduard von Liebert

1901-1906 Gustav Adolf Graf von Goetzen

1906-1912 Georg Albrecht von Rechenberg

1912-1918 Albert Heinrich Schnee

Extract ID: 3526

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 06a

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1918-1939

The period of British rule began with the occupation of the island of MAFIA by the Royal Navy in 1914. In 1916, the colony was occupied; German troops, commanded by able PAUL VON LETTOW-VORBECK continued to resist until the end of the war. In 1920, the League of Nations, granted the mandate to administrate the former German colony of German East Africa, except Ruanda and Burundi, to Britain.

The colony was renamed Tanganyika TERRITORY (1920). In 1921 the Belgians transferred the Kigoma district, which they had administrated since the occupation, to British administration., Great Britain and Belgium signed an agreement regarding the border between Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi in 1924.

British policy was to rule indirectly, i.e. through African leaders. In 1926, a LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL was established, which was to advise the governor. In 1928 the railway line Tabora-Mwanga was opened to traffic, the line from Moshi to Arusha in 1929.

In 1919 the population was estimated at 3,500,000. In 1931 a census established the population of Tanganyika at 5,022,640 natives, in addition 32,398 Asiatics and 8,228 Europeans.

Under British rule, efforts were undertaken to fight the Tsetse fly (Charles Swynnerton, since 1919), to fight Malaria and Bilharziasis; more hospitals were built.

In 1926, the Colonial administration provided subsidies to schools run by missionaries, and at the same moment established her authority to exercise supervision and to establish guidelines. Yet in 1935, the education budget for entire Tanganyika amounted to merely (US) $ 240,000.

Extract ID: 3484

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 06c
Extract Date: 1916-1939

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1918-1939: Tanganyika's Governors

1916-1920 Horace Archer Bratt, administrator

1920-1924 Horace Archer Bratt

1925-1931 Donald Charles Cameron

1931-1934 George Stewart Symes

1934-1938 Harold Alfred MacMichael

1938-1941 Mark Aitchinson Young

Extract ID: 3522

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 08a

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1939-1961

World War II changed the economic situation, production of tobacco, cattle and rubber saw a remarkable increase. When Japanese troops occupied Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies, the British administration took Tanganyika's ill-kept and unprofitable rubber plantations under their own management. The rubber boom ended immediately after the war.

Tanganyikans served in the war, in the KING'S AFRICAN RIFLE BATTALION and the TANGANYIKAN NAVAL VOLUNTEER FORCE. The territory received c.12,000 refugees, mostly Poles and Italians. In 1940, Canadian John Thorburn [sic] Williamson discovered DIAMONDS near Tabora in Tanganyika.

In 1946 Tanganyika was approved as a TRUST TERRITORY by the United Nations, in succession of the League of Nations, entrusted to Great Britain. In 1948, a constitutional reform resulted in African and Asian representation in the Legislative Council (established in 1926).

In 1949, Tanganyika's main export products were Sisal (over 40 % of total export value), followed by coffee. Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika had a shared currency, the EAST AFRICAN SHILLING. In 1947 an estimated 324,500 natives were under employment (out of a native population of 5,581,277 (1946)). Wages for agricultural labour began at 12s. per month, for semi-skilled to skilled labour at 20s. to 200s. per month. Asian artisans were paid 8 to 10s. per day.

In 1954, JULIUS NYERERE established the TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) which emerged as the dominant political party in the elections of 1958 and 1960. In 1961, independence was proclaimed.

In 1953 the Catholic church reorganized the administration of Tanganyika's community by elevating Daressalaam into the see of an archdiocesis, with suffragan dioceses at Bukoba, Dodoma, Iringa, Karema, Kigoma, Maswa (Shinyanga), Mbarara (Ruwenzori), Mbeya, Mbulu, Morogoro, Moshi, Mwanza, Rutabo and Tabora.

Extract ID: 3486

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 08b
Extract Date: 1939-1961

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1939-1961: Tanganyika's Governors

1938-1941 Mark Aitchinson Young

1941-1945 Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson

1945-1949 William Dennis Battershill

1949-1958 Edward Francis Twining

1958-1961 Richard Gordon Turnbull

Extract ID: 3520

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 09b

Population since 1961

Since independence, the population of Tanzania has more than doubled. The economic development was seriously affected by the oil crisis of the 1970es, as well as by a drop in world market prices for plantation crops. Tanzania economically lags behind it's northern, non-socialist neighbours Kenya and Uganda.

There is a separatist organization seeking the independence of Zanzibar & Pemba.

Tanzania's Population, 1960-1990

1960 10,026,000

1970 13,513,000

1980 18,867,000

1990 25,635,000

Extract ID: 3517

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World History at KMLA,
Page Number: 09c
Extract Date: 1961

Independence, since 1961 - Presidents, 1961- Prime Ministers, 1972-

Presidents, 1961-

1961-1965 Julius Nyerere

1965-1985 Julius Nyerere

1985-1995 Ali Hassan Mwinyi

1995- Benjamin William Mkapa

Prime Ministers, 1972-

1972-1977 Rashid Kawawa

1977-1980 Edward Moringe Sokoine

1980-1983 Cleopa David Msuya

1983-1984 Edward Moringe Sokoine

1984-1985 Salim Ahmed Salim

1985-1990 Joseph Warioba

1990-1994 John Malecela

1994-1995 Cleopa David Msuya

1995- Frederick Sumaye

Extract ID: 3518