Name ID 103
The East African
Extract Author: Zephania Ubwani
Extract Date: October 15, 1999
Copyright (c) 1999 The East African. Distributed via Africa News Online (www.africanews.org).
A wildlife conservation information centre will be set up in Arusha for use by tourists, wildlife researchers and the public.
The centre, being established by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, is expected to be opened before the end of the year.
Nearly 20 per cent of the Tanzania's 880,000 sq km surface area is under some form of conservation.
The conservator of the Ngorongoro area, Mr. Emmanuel Chausi, said the Arusha centre would be stocked with brochures, books, magazines, maps as well as video-cassettes and photographs depicting aspects of wildlife conservation. It will also advise visitors on wildlife safaris within the East African region.
The Ngorongoro authority, which administers the 8,300 sq km Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Arusha region, has so far spent Tsh40 million ($50,000) renovating a building in downtown Arusha which will house the centre. However, the conservator said the cost of the setting up of the centre would be much higher.
Mr. Chausi said the move had been prompted by the sharp increase in tourists visiting Tanzania's northern wildlife parks and conservation areas that include the world renowned Ngorongoro Crater recently listed as a World Heritage Site.
"There have been many inquiries about Ngorongoro and other game attractions like the Serengeti park by tourists. This facility will provide tourists with prior information before visiting the sites," Mr. Chausi said.
With its finest blend of landscapes, wildlife, the pastoral Maasai and archaeological sites, Ngorongoro is one of the leading tourist's attractions in Tanzania where tourism has seen fastest growth in recent years.
The main attraction is the 250 sq-km Ngorongoro Crator spanning a 23-km radius located some 160 km west of Arusha - that constitutes a mountain formation Geographers describe as a huge caldera or collapsed volcano.
At the depth of 600 metres from rim to bottom, the crater is a spectacular scenery with an abundance of wildlife that combine to make it a wonder of the natural world. Adjacent to it is the Olduvai Gorge the site where the famous skull of the nutcracker man (Australopithecus boisei) was excavated in 1959 as well as the 3.6 million-year-old Laetoli footprints.
Wildlife experts say the crater alone has over 20,000 large animals including some of Tanzania's last remaining black rhino. Other large grazing animals include wildebeest, zebra, giraffes, buffalo and gazelles, and it is also home to lions
Figures released by the Tanzania Division in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism indicated that some 175,476 tourists visited NCA in 1998/99 earning the Authority some US$ 5.7 million (Tshs 3.9 billion).
That was an increase of 35.7 per cent in tourist flow compared to 155,289 tourists recorded in 1997/98 generating some $4.2 million (Tshs 2.9 billion). It is estimated that the Authority will collect some $6.85 million (Tshs 4.8 billion) during the 1999/2000 season.
The main competitor to NCA in tourist attraction in Tanzania is the 12 game parks of the Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), that dot the country. During 1998/99 TANAPA attracted 269,902 tourists in its parks earning it $13.1 million (Tshs 9.1 billion).
South African Broadcasting Corporation
Extract Date: March 01, 2001
Article printout courtesy of the South African Broadcasting Corporation. Copyright � 2000 SABC.
A mysterious disease has killed about 600 animals in Ngorongoro Crater, the world-renowned game sanctuary in northern Tanzania. Emmanuel Chausi, an Ngorongoro wildlife official, says that some 323 buffaloes, 193 wildebeest, 69 zebras, seven rhinos, six lions, three antelopes and three hippos have died mysteriously in the crater.
He said experts from Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa and the United States were now in Ngorongoro studying the issue and a comprehensive report is expected soon.
"We don't know the cause but the problem started over nine months ago when five rhinos died, two more rhinos died last January, with early samples indicating the likelihood of the Babesiosis disease.
"Babesiosis is a condition associated with breathing difficulties in victims due to a lack of sufficient red blood cells which are vital for the oxidation process," Chausi said. He ruled out canine distemper, a condition which killed hundreds of lions in Tanzania's neighbouring Serengeti National Park in 1994. - Sapa-AFP
Article printout courtesy of the South African Broadcasting Corporation.
Copyright � 2000 SABC.
Extract Author: Alpha Nuhu
Extract Date: March 1, 2001
Copyright � 2001 Panafrican News Agency. Distributed by AllAfrica Global
American, Kenyan and South African wildlife scientists are in Tanzania to study a strange disease which has been decimating hundreds of animals in the world famous Ngorongoro Crater in the northern tourist circuit of the country.
The team of 11 researchers begun its study last week after Tanzanian wildlife authorities reported that a mysterious disease has killed at least 600 animals in the past 10 months.
Ngorongoro Crater, dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World, is home to more than 20,000 large animals, including some of Tanzania's remaining black rhinos.
The 8,300 square-kilometre conservation area boasts of the finest blend of landscape, wildlife, people and archaeological sites in Africa.
A Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA) official said Thursday the mysterious disease had attacked 323 buffaloes, 193 wildebeests, 69 zebras, seven rhinos, six lions and four hippos since May last year.
"We don't know the cause of the animal deaths, but early samples show that it is Babesiosis (urinating red samples)," said Emmanuel Chausi.
According to expert testimony, Babesiosis is a disease that causes breathing problems due to lack of sufficient red cells which supply oxygen in animals.
In 1994, a similar peculiar disease, later identified as Canine Distemper, killed more than 2,000 lions in the world's famous Serengeti National Park, also found on the north of Tanzania.
Wildlife scientists fear that an outbreak of such strange diseases in game parks, if not immediately controlled, may wipe out the animal populations vital for the booming tourist industry in the East African country.
"We have embarked on extensive research to control these dangerous diseases to preserve our natural heritage," Chausi said.
He said the deaths of buffaloes, zebras and antelopes in the crater could be due to severe drought which hit the northern part of Tanzania last year, causing widespread food shortages among villagers surrounding the national parks.
"We suspect that prolonged drought also contributed to the deaths of some animals like buffaloes and antelopes because their carcasses were found near water sources," he said.
Extract Author: Arusha Times Reporters
Extract Date: March 10, 2001
Misfortunes never come single handed. While echoes of the mysterious killer disease that has been terrorizing Ngorongoro Crater for ten months are still ringing, a fresh epidemic has just erupted and is reported to be causing more grievous harm to the wildlife.
Huge swarms of deadly biting flies known as "Stomoxys" are currently infesting the Crater, inflicting bad wounds and painful sores to the animals.
Explaining the sudden epidemic, the Principal Conservator with the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA), Emmanuel Cheusi said the flies were the result of the aftermath of the drought spell of 2000 and heavy rains of late last year and early this year.
So far the fierce Stomoxys flies are reported to have caused the deaths of six lions in the Crater, while the remaining 62 are in very bad conditions suffering from serious wounds.
Cheusi pointed out that, a similar epidemic occurred in 1962 when the extensive drought of 1961, followed by heavy rains of 1962 brought the first outbreak of Stomoxys flies whose attacks on the animals resulted into the death of over 67 lions.
From then, Ngorongoro had to do with only 8 lions a number which slowly increased to 68 by the year 1999.
Another outbreak of Stomoxys came with the aftermath of El-Nino/La-nina weather spells, when heavy rains and dry spells in the Simanjiro district brought forth the deadly insects which claimed the lives of both livestock and wildlife in the area.
While NCAA in conjunction with various experts are currently making efforts to save the ailing lions, fresh reports from the area has told this paper that, lions - the most affected species of wildlife - have mysteriously disappeared from the Crater, probably hiding from the deadly insect bites.
Ngorongoro Crater has also been experiencing mass deaths of animals whereby for the past ten months begin May 2000. A total of 604 animals have died under mysterious causes.
The dead animals includes 323 buffaloes, 193 wildebeests, 69 zebras, three hippopotamus, five rhinoceros and six lions.
The animals were first suspected to have died from either Theileria or Babesiosis disease but blood samples taken for laboratory tests have proved otherwise.
More blood samples have been sent for further tests in Holland and South Africa, but until going to press, results were yet to be announced.
Extract Date: March 12, 2001
A fresh epidemic has erupted in Ngorongoro Crater as huge swarms of deadly biting flies, called "Stomoxys," have infesting the crater, inflicting bad wounds and painful sores on animals.
According to Arusha Times, the deadly insects have come in the wake of reports of a mysterious disease that has been killing animals in the crater for some ten months now.
The Principal Conservator with the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA), Emmanuel Cheusi, is quoted by the newspaper as saying the flies are a result last year's drought which was followed by heavy rains.
The flies have caused the deaths of six lions, leaving 62 with serious wounds.
A similar epidemic occurred in 1962 when the extensive drought the previous year was followed by heavy rains.
The weather condition brought an outbreak of Stomoxys flies whose attacks resulted in the death of over 67 lions, the newspaper quoted Cheusi as saying.
From then on Ngorongoro had only eight lions. They�re slowly increased to 68 by 1999.
Another outbreak of Stomoxys came in the aftermath of El-Nino-La-Nina weather spells, when heavy rains and dry spells in the Simanjiro District brought forth the deadly insects which claimed the lives of both livestock and wildlife in the area.
According to the paper, lions, the most affected species of wildlife, have mysteriously disappeared from the crater, probably hiding from the deadly insect bites.
Ngorongoro Crater has also been experiencing mass deaths of animals. Beginning last May, 604 animals have died mysteriously.
They include 323 buffaloes, 193 wildebeest, 69 zebras, three hippopotami, five rhinoceros and six lions.
The animals were first suspected to have died from either Theileria or Babesiosis diseases but blood samples taken for laboratory tests have proved otherwise.
More blood samples have been sent for further tests in The Netherlands and South Africa.
Rhoda Kangero Time Tides and life in Ngorongoro Park
Extract Author: Rhoda Kangero - TSJ
Extract Date: 31 May 2002
About three million years ago, there was another, towering land feature, said to have been much taller than Mount Kilimanjaro, which currently, is Africa�s highest peak.
This "Taller than Kilimanjaro" mountain later collapsed in great earth shaking movements to form a vast bowl (caldera) to form a crater that is now known as Ngorongoro Crater.
After being forged through the tumultuous birth of Rift Valley, today the once highest feature in Africa has now been transformed into the amazing great Ngorongoro Crater, 610 metres deep and 260 kilometres squared.
Engraved within the vast Ngorongoro National Reserve, which runs between the Rift Valley rim and Serengeti plains, the crater is the largest unbroken caldera in the world.
It is also the biggest landmark cum trade mark, for the 8,300 square kilometres of Ngorongoro conservation Authority, a home of millions species of wild animals, various land features and forests.
Chief Conservator, Emmanuel Chausi reveals that the park was officially started in 1959 to be a tourist destination, natural resources conservation area and grazing space for over 42,000 Maasai pastoralists.
This also where human life allegedly began, at the Oldupai Gorge believed to have been a home of the first human being about 1.75 million years ago.
Henry Fosbrooke was the first founder of the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority (NCA) and being a devoted environmentalist, he became the chief conservator in between 1961 and 1965 before being appointed to be the presidential advisor in the land commission.
Fosbrooke died in April 25th, 1996 aged 87 years old. Solomon Saibul who used to be a Member of Parliament in the Arusha town constituency, became the second NCA conservator in 1980.
Coincidentally, Saibul who held the post for two years, died in October 1997, a year after the death of Fosbrooke.
Anthony Mgina, who was the third conservator previously worked as the authority administration officer in between 1964 and 1980. Mgina also died in August 1997 aged 67 years old.
Professor Bernard Grzimek, conducted the first survey in the park. The German born professor is the one who came up with the idea of terming the area as the 8th Wonder of the world.
His son, Michael Grzimek died in a plane crash in Serengeti alongside his favorite monkey. Michael and his father, wrote the all time classic "Serengeti Shall Not Die."
Ngorongoro boasts 1.5 million wildebeests, about 50,000 gazelles, 260,000 zebras, over 100 lions, 400 hyenas and a vast number of large mammals such as elephants, buffaloes, hippopotamus and rhinoceros.
The crater is reported to currently have about 100 lions after the animal�s mass deaths in 1962 caused by the massive attacks of bitting flies known as Stomoxys Calcitrans. There was a repeated epidemic in the aftermath of El-Nino weather spell of 1997/1998.
Rhinoceros are apparent the fewest animals in Ngorongoro since their reproduction, according to an officer with NCA, takes rather long time.
Also, in between1970 and 1980, poachers wrecked havoc in the park by killing hundreds of rhinos, taking their tusks for sale in Asian markets.
As from 1998 to 2001, Ngorongoro National Park handled about 235,808 foreign visitors from United States of America, Spain, France, Germany and Scandinavian countries.
Local visitors, among them school pupils and students amounted to 196,368 in the four year period.
As from July this year, park fees will rise from US$ 25 charged now to US$ 30 per each foreign visitor to the park, with an additional US$ 15 to enter the crater.
However, the Tsh.1,500 fee to visit the park and Tsh.500 for the Crater, as charged to local tourists will remain constant probably due to the fact that, local people have been showing very little interest in visit the area.
Overall, NCA earns between Tsh.3 and 4 billion each year from the tourists visiting the park. The money is usually invested in repairing park facilities and roads plus providing salaries to NCA staff.
The park authority have also formed a non governmental organization known as Ereto, which deals in supporting the local communities within the conservation area by providing them with food and other social amenities, free of charge.
Ereto, also provide veterinary assistance to the Maasai pastoralists in the area most of whom are said to be so poor that they usually can not afford them on their own.
Ngorongoro National Park was declared the world�s natural heritage area in 1978.