Name ID 1681
Ulyate Family Personal Communications
Extract Author: Raphael Avellar - World Telegram Staff Writer
Page Number: 530
Extract Date: 1938
from a New York Newspaper
Ray R Ulyate, of Arusha, Tanganyika, East Africa, has a nodding acquaintance with several hundred lions.
He knows them, he said today at the Hotel New Yorker, and they know him. And he said he doesn't mean the kind of Lion you see in circuses or zoos.
"Why." said Mr. Ulyate, who is a professional Lion hunter, here to induce more Americans to go on his safaris, "those circus and zoo lions are nothing like the lions we have on the Serengeti Plains. They'r no more lions than a wolfhound is a wolf. They were tame in the days of the Roman Empire."
There was a note of disdain in his voice, and when he spoke of the fellows who entertain circus audiences by entering cages full of lions he laughed out loud.
"There's nothing astounding about that." he said.
Mr Ulyate is 54, tall, broad-shouldered. His skin has been leathered by the weather of many a Lion hunt. He used to hunt with guns, but now he takes out parties armed with cameras.
"I hate to kill now, " he said, "Besides, hunting with a camera is more dangerous and more sport."
He said he had "tamed" lions: he claims he can tell one from another ("easier than I can tell Americans apart") and that now they seem to enjoy being photographed. He started by gragging a dead zebra or hartebeest to a point near a Lion's pride. (A pride is a Lion family.)
Ran for his trucks.
Soon, he said, the lions got used to the free meals. Now they run for his trucks, like cowboys for a chuck wagon. After the cats have gorged members of the safari take all the pictures they want. But they take them from the automobiles and trucks. Mr. Ulyate has never had an accident; but he takes no chances.
He said he is convinced that the wild Lion is amongst the most intelligent of beasts. Lions, he believes, communicate with one another. He says he has often seen lions advancing, retreating, or stopping in their tracks at a sign from the head of the pride.
During his thirty-two years of Lion hunting he has found that many popular beliefs about lions are false.
"Lions don't kill their prey by breaking their necks, " he said. "They suffocate their prey. And they're not afraid of fire. I've seen them come up to our campfire many a nigt and sit right by it. They stay there until we shoo them away."
He said most lions will not attack man unless cornered or wounded. The ones that do are "man killers." They become such in areas where natives do not bury their dead, and thus acquire a taste for human flesh.
"Man is to blame for man killers, you see." he said.
Mr. Ulyate is head of Tanganyika Big Game and Tourist Organisation. His wife, fours sons and two daughters assist him in the enterprise, which includes the operation of two hotels.
He was one of the guides on President Theodore Roosevelt's famous expedition lasting a year. "He was an excellent shot and a charming man to be with," Mr. Ulyate recalled.
He said that Kermit Roosevelt who was on the trip, "was not the shot his father was."
Radford, Tim Goodbye cruel world
Extract Author: Tim Radford
Extract Date: October 2, 2003
Guardian Unlimited � Guardian Newspapers Limited 2003
Lion numbers have dropped by 90% in 20 years. The other big cats are going fast. How long before all the Earth's 'mega species' disappear from the wild?
. . .
Lions, cheetahs and lynxes share certain characteristics with many other threatened creatures: they are large, they are carnivores, they are fussy about where they live, they need a large range, they have small litters and a long gestation period, and they are hunted.
This makes them natural candidates for extinction in a world in which human numbers have soared from 2.5 billion to more than 6 billion in 50 years. The planet's population grows by more than 80 million every year. There are roughly 240,000 extra mouths to feed every day.
Each of these humans has a personal ecological footprint: that is, each appropriates an average of 2.1 hectares (5.2 acres) to provide water, food, energy, housing, transport, commerce and somewhere to tip the waste. (Americans on average take up almost 10 hectares each.) Even though the rate of growth in human numbers is beginning to decline, the wild things are being pushed towards oblivion at an ever faster rate. That is because the numbers of individual households - empty nesters, yuppies, singletons and one-parent families - is exploding, even in those countries with low population growth. That means yet more pressure on the wild to provide timber, gravel and lime, plant fibres, food and water.
Survivors in an increasingly human world need a different set of characteristics. They must be small herbivores that produce large numbers of offspring very swiftly, adapt happily to concrete, tarmac and fossil-fuel pollution and are prepared to live anywhere. So the typical wild animals of the 21st century, as one American biol ogist predicted more than 30 years ago, "will be the house sparrow, the grey squirrel, the Virginia opossum and the Norway rat". The Lion, denied the Lion's share, could slope off into the eternal night.
. . .
Lions won't be extinguished, he [Robert May - Lord May of Oxford, president of the Royal Society] says. "They will be kept in reserves and zoos. But the question is, whether you are keeping a Lion or whether you are keeping a Latin binomial, Felis leo, and that is a question that is awkward to ask."
The Lion, according to Georgina Mace, director of science at the Zoological Society of London, was the one animal conservationists had not been worried about. Until recently, it had been widespread in Africa, though it had all but disappeared from Asia. There are two ways of alarming conservationists, she says. "One is that you are incredibly rare and you just sit on a remote island, being a species that is found nowhere else and there are just 50 of you, but you could have been rare for ever and ever: that is the nature of the life you have. The other way of being of conservation concern is to decline very quickly, and we have been much better at spotting the former rather than the latter. But the latter is probably the one that is going to affect most species. If you are just sitting there being very rare, people are usually protecting you."
The Lion, as she sees it, is not an isolated case. The population of bluefin tuna had crashed by 95% before anybody noticed. The passenger pigeon once existed in tens of millions, but was wiped out. The American buffalo almost disappeared. There would once have been lions by the million.
"Carnivore numbers fluctuate. If you are looking in one place, you'd see them come and go. Actually, what they are doing is moving large scale across the landscape, occupying areas where there is abundant prey and then moving somewhere else; they are quite hard to monitor. You think, oh, they are rare here - and then you suddenly realise that actually, they are rare everywhere."
The bitterest irony is that animal populations are dwindling and extinctions accelerating despite a 30-year campaign to establish parks and wildlife reserves in all the great wilderness areas of the world: the rainforests, savannahs, estuaries, deserts, mountains, grasslands, wetlands and so on. These wildernesses cover 46% of the land surface, but hold just 2.4% of the population. More than 10% of these places are now protected by national and international edict. Yet ultimately they cannot protect the wild things. Poachers look to make a killing in both senses of the word. Big animals stray and become a menace to small farmers, who drive them off or kill them. And the tourists turn up, bringing even more of mankind and its expensive ways into the wilderness. A study of the Wolong Reserve in China - opened decades ago to protect the giant panda - revealed that the panda was still in decline and that more humans had moved in, cutting back the bamboo forest for roads, homes and tourist services. The lions in Africa - and all the creatures in Africa's national parks - are still being hunted, hounded or harassed by humans.
. . .
The lions of Africa - and the wild creatures further down the food chain - can only be saved by money and political will from both national and international communities. The developing nations do have an incentive to protect their biodiversity. It represents potential wealth, one way or the other. Some extinctions of already rare creatures are inevitable. But spend on the lions, says Lawton, and you could save a lot more besides. Committed spending saved the black and white rhino - targets of poachers as well as victims of human pressure - but the sums of money invested were critical.
"If you create big, effective reserves for these charismatic guys at the top of the food chain, huge numbers of other creatures we don't even know exist could just slip through to the end of the century on the coat-tails of the lions," Lawton says. "So it is a matter of putting enough resources in. In a world which is prepared to spend an extra �55bn on a war in Iraq, we are talking about peanuts."
BBC internet news
Extract Date: 4 August, 2004
The research is detailed in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
Numbers of lions in the Ngorongoro Crater have been knocked severely by several bouts of acute disease over the past 40 years.
Between 1994 and 2001, outbreaks of canine distemper virus have kept the Lion population low, with numbers dipping to just 29 individuals in 1998.
The scientists suggest that climate change, or an increasing local human population could be to blame.
The research is detailed in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
The Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania is a truly unique place. The crater, which is 610m deep and 260km squared, is a microcosm of East African scenery and wildlife.
Many crater animals, like lions, live there and there alone, making it a near-contained mini biosphere.
For scientists that is very interesting, because it is easier for them to know exactly what pressures the creatures face. They can follow a population of animals over time, and record how changes in things like food supply, or competition, affect them.
The lions of the Ngorongoro Crater have been monitored closely since the 1960s. One question researchers wanted to answer was what regulated their population numbers.
In large carnivores like lions, one might expect food supply to be the main limiting factor. But in recent years, disease is a more likely restriction, according to Bernard Kissui and Craig Packer, of the University Minnesota, US.
There are probably enough prey animals like buffalo in the Ngorongoro Crater to support about 120 lions.
But at various times over the last 40 years Lion numbers have dropped well below that - and in the last 10 years there have rarely been more than 60 in the crater.
Kissui and Packer believe that disease is the biggest culprit in this population dip.
In 1962, the crater Lion population crashed from about 100 to 12, which coincided with an outbreak of blood-sucking stable flies.
After this severe knock, the population climbed again, to reach over 100 by 1975. Lion numbers then simmered away at fairly stable proportions until 1983, when they went into decline again - reaching a low point of 29 individuals in 1998.
"Disease appears to be the only factor that has held the crater Lion population below its carrying capacity for the past 10 years," Bernard Kissui and Craig Packer write in their research paper.
Although many diseases threaten lions, canine distemper virus (CDV), which normally affects dogs, has been a particular menace to the big cats.
The researchers are not entirely sure what has caused this increase in levels of disease.
They suggest it could be due to the fact that there are many more humans in the area now, and with them come domestic dogs - which carry CDV.
Or disease outbreaks could be exacerbated by climate change. In the last 10 years East Africa has suffered many more droughts and floods, which seem to coincide with bouts of disease.
"The weather in East Africa was more variable in the 1990s than in the 1970s and 1980s, and all four Lion die-offs coincided with drought and flood," write Kissui and Packer.
"The 1962 [stable fly] plague coincided with heavy floods that immediately followed a severe drought in 1961... and the 2001 CDV epidemic followed the drought of 2000."
Whatever the cause of the disease outbreaks, they put the fragile population of Ngorongoro Crater lions at serious risk.
Kissui and Packer concluded: "Endangered populations can remain at serious risk even with a large, stable food supply and no real threats from competing species."
Extract Author: Matilda Kirenga
Page Number: 341
Extract Date: 9 Oct 2004
Maasai warriors are usually known for their bravery in hunting and killing Lions that attack their cattle, but recently tables turned against them in Ngorongoro area, when a a Lion attacked three Maasai morans, hurting them badly.
The incident occurred last week within the Ngorongoro Conservation Area where three Maasai youths identified as Moinga ole Kumbashi aged 25, Momboi ole Kisai (20) and Olenayeiyo aged (18) were grazing their cattle.
According to police reports, when the youths were taking care of their livestock, a ferocious animal jumped from a nearby bush and knocked the three onto the ground, ready to kill them.
Realizing that the animal was actually a Lion the youths decided to fight for their lives by unleashing counter attacks.
By the time the Lion was defeated and left the area, the three Morans were in bad condition, with Ole Kumbashi sustaining deep wounds on the chest, left arm and right leg.
Olenaneiyo suffered bad gushes on his right arm and both lower limbs, especially thighs, while the other warrior, Momboi Kisai had both his buttocks bitten off and right hand injured badly.
Regional Police commander, James Kombe said the three survivors of the Lion attack were taken to a Hospital in Loliondo where they were still being admitted by the time we went to press.
This one is a rare occurrence to happen in the local game parks as wild animals hardly attack human beings residing within or near the reserves.
Khamsi, Roxanne Lion attacks on the rise
Extract Date: 17 Aug 2005
Lions are killing people in Tanzania three times as often as they did 15 years ago, according to a survey. The authors of the study say that farmers should clear their land of bush pigs, an attractive prey to lions, to reduce the number of clashes between lions and local people.
Since 1990, lions have killed more than 563 Tanzanians and injured at least 308, the researchers report in Nature1, with fatal attacks increasing markedly over time.
The problem seems to be the rising human population. In the past, lions have typically hunted wildebeast rather than bush pigs. But as Tanzanian communities have grown, the number of usual prey has diminished.
Villagers have a tendency to sleep in their fields to guard their crops against nocturnal pests such as bush pigs. These farmers cannot afford to buy fences, explains lead author Craig Packer of the University of Minnesota in St Paul.
So the pigs get in to the crops, the lions follow the pigs into the farms, and then the villagers fall prey to the lions. Both farmers and their families are killed: 18% of victims in the study period were younger than 10 years old.
The intensified attacks have also taken a toll on the lions, thanks to people hunting the killers in retaliation. Experts fear Lion populations are now shrinking rapidly.
"They want to kill the problem animals, but it's difficult to know who the problem animals are, so sometimes the response is indiscriminate," Packer says. "The number of lions being killed by people has probably increased by ten fold over the past decade." There are roughly 100,000 lions in Africa, and at least a quarter of these live in Tanzania, he estimates.
The conflict has concerned wildlife biologists. "It is problem number one when it comes to Lion conservation. There's no close second," Packer stresses. He adds that outsiders often have an impression that lions are killed for trophy hunting, but this isn't the main issue. "People outside of Africa seem to have forgotten how threatening these animals are," says Packer.
The new survey provides the first concrete evidence that Lion attacks are worst in areas with bush-pig infestations. Researchers suggest that digging trenches around fields to keep these animals away from crops would reduce the number of lions that follow them into areas with humans.
"There has long been a sense of helplessness in these areas," Packer says. "We are trying to provide fresh ideas."
Extract Author: Emanuel Martin
Page Number: 2008 12 16
Extract Date: 16-Dec-2008
I have read through your webpage, and became attracted with the information especially the one related to farming and wildlife conservation activities in Arusha region during the pre independence era of Tanganyika. However I would like to ask you if you have any knowledge regarding the presence of lions in the current Arusha National Park and the surrounding areas. In case your answer is Yes, I would then kindly request you to fill in my questionnaire which I will send it to you after receiving your email address. Otherwise, I am a student doing a research on finding factors regarding local extinction of lions in Arusha National Park.
Thank you for your time and considerations!