Name ID 2073
Fosbrooke, Henry Arusha Integrated Regional Development Plan
Page Number: 29
Extract Date: 1916-1934
Paper III. Urban Development & the Growth of Communications
The first expansion in the British period was the Babati Road area, laid out as a commercial area on the present market site, surrounded by dwelling sites which were taken up by immigrant Tanzanians who built typical 'Swahili' houses with mud walls and thatched roofs.
By 1934 the main Babati Road lay out had by no means been fully taken up, there were large gaps towards the station, which itself had been built on arrival of the railway in 1929. Water was drawn from the rivers running throught the town; the only piped supply was laid on privately by the New Arusha Hotel. Sanitation was by bucket, collected by gangs of prisoners.
The next expansion was the low density dwelling area to the east, including the golf course. To a sociologist it appeared difficult to justify the eviction of peasant ciltivators living at a density of over 1000 to the square mile to give Europeans space to knock a small rubber ball around. But the town planners pointed out the desirability of having an open area between the low density housing and the peasant cultivation to control the spread of disease, particularly Malaria!.
Arusha: A Brochure of the Northern Province and its Capital Town
Page Number: 23
Extract Date: 1929
One is struck by the low incidence of tropical diseases prevalent in the Township. Malaria is definitely uncommon and the Town is not ringed around at close contact with a highly 'infective native population and although "Anopheline" mosquitos are not unknown, their main breeding ground is known and can consequently be dealt with. An old adage "it is better to be safe than sorry" should be remembered in connection with the use of mosquito nets. Other of the more common tropical diseases are conspicuous by their absence in the Township.
Certain persons when they first arrive in Arusha may be under the impression that the place does not suit them but I think that most people require a short time to adjust themselves to the altitude; I know that when I first went to Tabora from Dar-es-Salaam my nose bled.
The water and food supply of Arusha is good and adequate with the exception of milk but it is hoped that early next year a definite control will be put over the native milk supply.
The appointment of a European Sanitary Inspector in Arusha has done and will do much for the Sanitation of the Township. Arusha i,s a young place and before a few years are past many of its primitive featues e.g. the carriage of water in tins from the springs to the houses will be done away with and these things accomplished there is no reason why Arusha with its cool climate (blankets always required at night) should not be a resort for recuperation from the depressions of the coast and the ills of other townships.
Extract Date: 7 March 2001
Babesiosis is caused by an intraerythrocytic parasite, Babesia microti, which is similar in effect to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of Malaria.36,43 Recently, WA1, another species of Babesia, has been described as a possible human pathogen. The intermediate host for B. microti and WA1 is the same tick that transmits B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Symptoms of Babesiosis are similar to those of Lyme disease: fatigue, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, and fever. The disease is particularly life threatening in splenectomized patients. There are several diagnostic tests for Babesiosis.
Extract Author: Jon Snow
Extract Date: January 3, 2006
Guardian Unlimited © Guardian Newspapers Limited 2006
On our way back to Namasagali [Uganda] he wanted us to see an extraordinary project in northern Tanzania. Usa is a village of 167 people close to Arusha in northern Tanzania. A year ago each of the villagers was equipped with a longlife mosquito net. In the months since, the incidence of Malaria in the village has fallen to zero. Elerehema Manga, a 60-year-old farm labourer earning £2 a week, is typical. He was given nets not only for his bed but also for his windows and the gaps in the eaves of his hut. The total cost was £8, hence the need for outside funding from agencies such as Unicef. I asked him about his experiences of Malaria. "I had it three times last year. Now, since the nets were brought in February I haven't had it once."
The source of Elerehema's malarial relief is the A to Z plastics factory in Arusha. The revolutionary net is being produced here on a truly dramatic scale. The net is made of extruded resin sold at market price by Exxon Mobil. Hardly at the forefront of altruistic repute, Exxon too is a member of the global partnership to "Roll Back Malaria". The money it makes from the Saudi-produced resin, Exxon gives back to Unicef to buy more nets, to try to create a mosquito net market. Sumitomo hasn't given money. Instead it has made a free technology transfer of the secret ingredient that gives the net its longlife properties. Mosquito repellent is introduced into the resin compound which, when extruded, enables the chemical to bleed very slowly out of the yarn - so slowly that the repellent remains effective for between five and seven years. This is a remarkable advance on the standard nets, which require "reproofing" every six months. Such nets are rendered useless by a lack of funds, equipment and organisation to respray them.
Inside the A to Z factory, blue longlife netting cascades from 50 huge industrial looms. There are about 1,200 African workers working to save the lives of other Africans. But Anuj Shah, who runs the company is no do-gooder. He's in it for profit and is determined that net making in Africa is a seriously commercial activity. Currently producing 3m of these nets a year, he expects his new factory, which is under construction nearby, to start producing 7m a year by April. After that he hopes to expand to 20m - a tenth of Africa's entire need.
Technology transfer and money from the G8 and beyond have combined to enable Africa to start combating its number one killer disease. So far, so good.
Namasagali is to be the next serious "upscaling" of net testing. A village 10 times the size of Usa it is to be netted up for a year to see whether blanket net provision can make as startling a difference on a bigger scale.
By the time we arrived in Uganda, a small committee headed by the village chief had already been established to handle the dispersal of the nets. The process of handing them out was orderly despite my own slight suspicion that the good parishioners of St Paul's saw me as some kind of "second coming". We shall return to Namasagali in a year's time to see who's had Malaria and who's sold their net, or simply gone fishing with it.
As we left Namasagali news came through of the Ugandan government's decision to go after the officials who had stolen $280,000 of Global Fund money made available to buy the longlife nets. Among those under suspicion was President Museveni's own brother-in-law.
The money is there. The nets are being manufactured in a process that has the potential to be rolled out right across Africa. Africa's governance alone now seems to stand in the way. For Malaria to be "rolled back" by 2015, the goal set by Gleneagles, the answer seems to lie with Africa itself.
· Jon Snow's film on Malaria aired on Channel 4 News on January 3 2006
Extract Author: Sumitomo Chemical
Extract Date: 8 February 2008
Press Release (Tokyo)
Vice President Dr Ali Mohammed Shein today presided over the dedication of the new Olyset Net factory in Arusha, Tanzania before an audience of distinguished guests.
Olyset, a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN), is a crucial tool in the fight against Malaria – and the only WHO-recommended LLIN manufactured in Africa, where a child dies from Malaria every 30 seconds.
“The Olyset model produces a vital public health product and simultaneously boosts economic development in Africa,” said Vice President Shein. “This is truly an advance beyond aid, toward self-sustaining enterprise in the service of public health. It is a model that should be vigorously applied in other industries across the continent.”
The Arusha net factory is a 50/50 joint venture between Sumitomo Chemical, a multi-national Japanese company headquartered in Tokyo, and A to Z Textile Mills, a locally-based Tanzanian company. The joint venture legal entity, Vector Health International, is an expansion of a business relationship that commenced with a royalty-free technology transfer in 2003. The new facilities bring Olyset production capacity in Arusha to 10 million nets per year.
Over 3,200 jobs have been created in the venture, supporting at least 20,000 people. “We are delighted to celebrate with all of you this significant milestone. Our collaboration has grown to a full-fledged joint venture.” said Hiromasa Yonekura, President of Sumitomo Chemical. “This Tanzania operation is a stronghold for our Olyset Net business. From here, we will further expand our Olyset Net operations in Africa, and we will enhance our efforts in the fight against Malaria and to contribute to Africa’s economic development.”
LLINs are proven, effective tools in the fight against Malaria. Olyset Net was the first LLIN to be submitted to the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) and remains the only LLIN to have passed all four stages of the evaluation process confirming efficacy and longevity. The Olyset Net is tough, durable and wash-proof. Insecticide is incorporated within the net's fibres during manufacture, for slow release over a sustained period of time. Consequently, they never need re-treatment with insecticide, and are guaranteed to be effective for a minimum of five years.
In field tests, Olyset nets have been shown to still be effective after seven years in Tanzania. “Africa needs direct foreign investment to build strong economies, and when 90% of the Malaria deaths are in Africa, why should we have to import bednets?” said Anuj Shah, CEO of A to Z Textile Mills. “These jobs are transforming our community, and we are seeing that children are staying in school longer as one immediate result.”
“Long lasting insecticide nets are a vital tool in the fight against Malaria. We are delighted to see such a huge expansion of local production capacity in Tanzania and the creation of more jobs, especially for women,” said Dr. Awa Marie Coll-Seck, Executive Director of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership.
“The transfer of this technology to Africa four years ago has reaped tremendous results and shows how innovative partnerships can produce sustainable benefits for public health.”
About A to Z Textile Mills Ltd.
A to Z Textile Mills Ltd., was established by the Shah family in 1966 in Arusha, Tanzania as a small garment manufacturer. In 1978, the company started manufacturing polyester bednets. Bednets now constitute a large percentage of production, taking place in fully integrated plants with spinning, knitting, weaving, dyeing, finishing, cutting and making departments. The business culture at A to Z invites innovation, with commitment to attracting and retaining capable employees; treatment of employees with dignity and respect; encouragement for creativity and innovation in every aspect of the work; provision of growth opportunities to all within the organization; provision of a healthy, safe and enjoyable work environment; and establishment of progressive and long- standing relationship with suppliers.
About Sumitomo Chemical
Sumitomo Chemical is a multi-national Japanese company, with decades of experience in hybrid chemistry, including both insecticide manufacturing and plastics technology. Dedicated to solving environmental and social problems through innovative technology and sustainable development, Sumitomo Chemical believes the cycle of poverty can be broken by the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases. As Olyset has been shown to be the most cost-effective Malaria preventative intervention today, Sumitomo Chemical is working to ensure this technology reaches those in need through expansion of production capacity for local African manufacture of Olyset.
The development of this life-saving product is central to Sumitomo Chemical’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) commitment, which has the “sustainable development of society” at its core.
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IPP Media - including the Guardian
Extract Author: Adam Ihucha, Arusha
Extract Date: 2008-02-19
Business in Arusha ground to a virtual standstill yesterday as US President George Bush entered the city on the third day of his historic four-day state visit to Tanzania.
The visiting President and his entourage jetted in from Dar es Salaam, where the first leg of their high-profile tour began on Saturday evening.
With the only major road linking the city to the outside world closed for hours to facilitate the tour, local motorists parked their vehicles, seriously disrupting transport schedules.
Most workers and other local residents were unable to make it to the city centre following the absence of commuter buses and taxis and other means of transport from as early as 7am. As a result, shops remained closed and most other business premises deserted.
According to an earlier police alert, the relevant stretch of the busy Moshi-Arusha road would be closed to the public from 8am to 5pm.
A similar situation was witnessed here in August 2000 when President Bush?s predecessor, Bill Clinton, attended the Burundi peace accord signing ceremony.
People lined the road stretch all the way from the Philips factory to the Mianzini suburb as well as the Namanga road portion from the Col. Middleton junction to Sakina/TCA.
Hundreds of others had camped at Kambi ya Fisi, along the Ngarenaro Villa corner stretch of the road to Nairobi and at Mbauda/Majengo along the road to Dodoma.
The Dodoma Road section from the so-called Nairobi Corner and all the way to Makuyuni at the border between Arusha and Manyara regions was a no-go zone.
Many Arusha residents had hoped that President Bush would greet them by shaking their hands just as had happened in Dar es Salaam but that was not to be, as his motorcade simply sped past them.
Meanwhile, there was a sudden scarcity of fresh milk in the city since most hawkers normally bringing the milk from the Arumeru hills by bicycle were barred from entering the central business district.
Also, with the 45-kilometer road stretch from the Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA) to Arusha closed, newspapers could not reach here on time. It was not until about 2pm that they were delivered,which means that they were ready for sale at least two hours later.
An agent of Kilimanjaro Express Bus services, Victoria Obeid, said the Bush visit to Arusha forced them to cancel a scheduled trip to Dar es Salaam.
Normally, some 40 commuter buses ply the Dar es Salaam-Arusha route on a daily basis.
The services of the 300-plus minibuses that routinely ferry passengers between Arusha and Moshi everyday were similarly disrupted yesterday.
The security measures did not spare tour operators, who had no option but to observe the travel restrictions.
Only scheduled airlines were allowed to land at KIA between 10am and 6pm, according to an e-mail message from Tanzania Tour Operators Association Executive Secretary Mustafa Akuunay copied to all tour operators.
Within a radius of 60km from the smaller Arusha Airport, some 8km west of this city, no flight training, aerobatics, hand gliding, hot air balloon parachuting exercises were allowed.
The road from KIA via Mianzini, Nairobi Road corner and down to the Tanzania National Parks Authority head offices, Arusha Airport, and A to Z Textile Mills at Kisongo was also closed between 8am and 3pm.
President Bush and his entourage landed at KIA with the majestic Mount Kilimanjaro fully visible. They were welcomed by Maasai women dancers in purple robes, white discs hanging around their necks. The VIP guests admired the show from a short distance, some nodding in appreciation but not actually joining in the dance.
President Bush and First Lady Laura Bush began the day by touring a hospital, before visiting A to Z Textile Mills that makes treated mosquito nets recommended by the World Health Organisation.
The Arusha net factory, the only one in Africa passed by WHO for the purpose, is a 50/50 joint venture between the Tokyo-based multinational Sumitomo Chemical and Arusha?s A to Z Textile Mills.
The venture is an expansion of a business relationship that took off with royalty-free technology transfer in 2003. The new facilities can make up to 10 million treated mosquito nets a year, much in excess of Tanzania?s needs.
The venture is reported to have created more than 3,200 jobs supporting at least 20,000 people.
``We are delighted to celebrate with you all, this significant milestone. Our collaboration has grown to a full-fledged joint venture,`` said Sumitomo Chemical President Hiromasa Yonekura at the factory?s official inauguration yesterday attended by President Bush.