Abstract: Conservationists working in Mkomazi Game Reserve regard the eviction of pastoralists as necessary for the conservation of wildlife in the reserve. They argue that pastoralists and their livestock have an adverse impact on the environment and that successful conservation is only possible if it is exclusive of human land use. Although this view has been challenged by recent studies, and despite having long standing written authority to reside there, the pastoralists have been forcibly evicted from the reserve. The case has gone to the courts. Historical analysis suggests that whatever the judgement, it is clear that just resolution of the conflict is dependent on respect for indigenous rights and the future participation of local people in the management of resources for both their benefit and that of wildlife conservation in this area.